Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Skin Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.Being exposed to ultraviolet radiation is a risk factor for skin cancer.Some studies suggest that being exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the sensitivity of a person's skin to UV radiation are risk factors for skin cancer. UV radiation is the name for the invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Sunlamps and tanning beds also give off UV radiation.Risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma cancers are not the same.Risk factors for nonmelanoma skin cancer:Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Skin Cancer Screening
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of skin cancer screening tests include the following: Finding skin cancer does not always improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced skin cancer.Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. Treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cancer is present. A person who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay getting medical
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Introduction
Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked,the definition will appear in a separate window. Many of the genes described in this summary are found in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. When OMIM appears after a gene name or the name of a condition,click on OMIM for a link ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma
Primary intraocular melanomas originate from melanocytes in the uveal tract. Four distinct cellular types are recognized in intraocular melanoma (revised Callender classification):Spindle-A cells (spindle-shaped cells with slender nuclei and lacking visible nucleoli). Spindle-B cells (spindle-shaped cells with larger nuclei and distinct nucleoli).Epithelioid cells (larger polygonal cells with one or more prominent nucleoli).Intermediate cells (similar to but smaller than epithelioid cells).Most primary intraocular melanomas contain variable proportions of epithelioid, spindle-A, and spindle-B cells (mixed-cell melanomas). Pure epithelioid-cell primary melanomas are infrequent (approximately 3% of cases). In the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, mixed-cell type melanomas predominated (86% of cases).References: Klintworth GK, Scroggs MW: The eye and ocular adnexa. In: Sternberg SS, ed.: Diagnostic Surgical Pathology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999,
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence
BackgroundIncidence and mortalityThere are three main types of skin cancer:Basal cell carcinoma (BCC).Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which together with BCC is referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC).Melanoma.BCC and SCC are the most common forms of skin cancer but have substantially better prognoses than the less common, generally more aggressive, melanoma.NMSC is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United States. Its incidence appears to be increasing in some, but not all, areas of the country. Overall U.S. incidence rates have likely been increasing for a number of years. At least some of this increase may be attributable to increasing skin cancer awareness and resulting increasing investigation and biopsy of skin lesions. The total number and incidence rate of NMSCs cannot be estimated precisely because reporting to cancer registries is not required. However, based on extrapolation of Medicare fee-for-service data to the U.S.
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Recurrent Melanoma
Recurrent melanoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the area where it first started or in other parts of the body, such as the lungs or liver.
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage I Melanoma Treatment
Stage I melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:T1a, N0, M0T1b, N0, M0T2a, N0, M0Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage I MelanomaCurrent evidence suggests that lesions 2 mm or less in thickness may be treated conservatively with radial excision margins of 1 cm. A randomized trial compared narrow margins (1 cm) with wide margins (at least 3 cm) in patients with melanomas no thicker than 2 mm.[2,3] No difference was observed between the two groups in respect to the development of metastatic disease, disease-free survival (DFS), or overall survival (OS). Two other randomized trials compared 2 cm margins with wider margins (i.e., 4 cm or 5 cm) and found no statistically significant difference in local recurrence, distant metastasis, or OS with a median follow-up of 10 years or more for both trials.[4,5,6][Level of evidence:1iiA] In the Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial, the reduction in margins from 4 cm to 2 cm was