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    Melanoma/Skin Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Melanoma Skin Cancer

    1. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

      Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin,flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth,hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels,and the lining ...

    2. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    3. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Medium and Large Choroidal Melanoma

      Eye-sparing radiation therapy, either by plaque brachytherapy or external beam, is the preferred option for most patients with medium-sized choroidal melanoma. Enucleation remains the standard therapy for large, choroidal melanomas and melanomas that cause severe glaucoma or invade the optic nerve. Standard treatment options:Tumor growth pattern is a factor in the therapeutic decision. If there is a diffuse melanoma or if there is extraocular extension, enucleation should be considered, but radiation therapy can be employed for less extensive disease. Medium-sized choroidal melanomasPlaque radiation therapy.[1,2,3,4]External-beam, charged-particle radiation therapy: This approach is offered at specialized referral centers. It requires careful patient cooperation, with voluntary fixation of gaze.[5,6,7]Local eye-wall resection.[8,9]Combined therapy, with ablative laser coagulation or transpupillary thermotherapy to supplement plaque treatment.[10,11]Enucleation. This approach is

    4. Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Unresectable Stage III, Stage IV, and Recurrent Melanoma Treatment

      Stage IV melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]Any T, any N, M1Treatment Options for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent MelanomaImmunotherapy.Checkpoint inhibitors.Interleukin-2 (IL-2).Signal transduction inhibitors.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors (for patients who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation).MEK inhibitors.Multikinase inhibitors.KIT inhibitors.Chemotherapy.Palliative local therapy.Clinical trials should be strongly considered because of the rapid advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.Treatment option overview for patients with stage IV and recurrent melanomaAlthough melanoma that has spread to distant sites is rarely curable, two approaches have demonstrated clinical benefit by prolonging overall survival (OS) in randomized trials:

    5. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about skin cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    6. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Melanoma

      Agreement between pathologists in the histologic diagnosis of melanomas and benign pigmented lesions has been studied and found to be considerably variable. One such study found that there was discordance on the diagnosis of melanoma versus benign lesions in 37 of 140 cases examined by a panel of experienced dermatopathologists.[1] For the histologic classification of cutaneous melanoma, the highest concordance was attained for Breslow thickness and presence of ulceration, while the agreement was poor for other histologic features such as Clark level of invasion, presence of regression, and lymphocytic infiltration. In another study, 38% of cases examined by a panel of expert pathologists had two or more discordant interpretations. These studies convincingly show that distinguishing between benign pigmented lesions and early melanoma can be difficult, and even experienced dermatopathologists can have differing opinions. To reduce the

    7. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Skin Cancer

      Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin.The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer). The epidermis is made up of 3 kinds of cells:Squamous cells are the thin, flat cells that make up most of the epidermis.Basal cells are the round cells under the squamous cells.Melanocytes are found throughout the lower part of the epidermis. They make melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes make more pigment, causing the skin to tan, or darken.The dermis contains blood and lymph vessels, hair follicles, and glands. Anatomy of the skin, showing the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Melanocytes are in the layer of basal

    8. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - What is screening?

      Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

    9. Skin Cancer Screening - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    10. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Skin Cancer

      Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin. The skin is the body’s largest organ. It protects against heat,sunlight,injury,and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water,fat,and vitamin D. The skin has several layers,but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner ...

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