Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Interventions With Inadequate Evidence as to Whether They Reduce Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Sunscreen Use and Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation AvoidanceBenefitsThe evidence that interventions designed to reduce exposure to UV radiation by the use of sunscreen, protective clothing, or limitation of sun exposure time decrease the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer is inadequate. A randomized study suggested a possible reduction in incidence of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but study design and analysis problems complicate interpretation of the results.[1,2]Magnitude of Benefit: Not applicable (N/A) (inadequate evidence).Study Design: One randomized controlled trial (RCT) with tumor incidence as the outcome and one RCT with actinic keratosis as the outcome for SCC; cohort studies for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Other study designs give inconsistent results.Internal Validity: Poor.Consistency: Poor.External Validity: Poor.HarmsThe harms of sunscreen use are poorly quantified but are likely to be small, including allergic reactions to skin creams and lower production of vitamin D
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Skin Cancer Screening
Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery.Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Skin exams are used to screen
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with melanoma. Different types of treatment are available for patients with melanoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Five types of standard treatment are used:Surgery Surgery to remove the tumor is the primary treatment of all stages of melanoma. The doctor may remove the tumor using the following operations: Wide local excision: Surgery to remove the melanoma and some of the normal tissue around it. Some of the lymph nodes may
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Melanoma
After melanoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the skin or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out whether cancer has spread within the skin or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Talk with your doctor about what the stage of your cancer is. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.Lymph node mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy: Procedures in which a radioactive substance and/or blue dye is injected near the tumor. The substance or dye flows through lymph ducts to the
Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Who is at Risk?
Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Skin Cancer Screening,Skin Cancer Treatment,and Levels of Evidence for Cancer Screening and Prevention Studies are also available. Individuals whose skin freckles,tans poorly,or burns easily after sun exposure are particularly susceptible to developing skin cancer.[ 1 ] Observational and analytic epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that increased ...
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 09 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
Melanomas that have not spread beyond the site at which they developed are highly curable. Most of these are thin lesions that have not invaded beyond the papillary dermis (Clark level I–II; Breslow thickness ≤1 mm). The treatment of localized melanoma is surgical excision with margins proportional to the microstage of the primary lesion; for most lesions 2 mm or less in thickness, this means 1 cm radial re-excision margins.[1,2]Melanomas with a Breslow thickness of 2 mm or more are still curable in a significant proportion of patients, but the risk of lymph node and/or systemic metastasis increases with increasing thickness of the primary lesion. The local treatment for these melanomas is surgical excision with margins based on Breslow thickness and anatomic location. For most melanomas more than 2 mm to 4 mm in thickness, this means 2 cm to 3 cm radial excision margins. These patients should also be considered for sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by complete lymph node
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma
The prognosis for any patient with recurring or relapsing disease is poor, regardless of cell type or stage. The question and selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including the extent of the lesion, age and health of the patient, prior treatment, and site of recurrence, as well as individual patient considerations. Surgical resection of metastases diagnosed subsequent to initial management of ocular melanoma in single-center, case series of highly selected patients has been reported. The extent to which the occasional favorable outcomes are the result of strong selection factors is not clear, so this approach cannot be considered standard.Clinical trials are appropriate, and eligible patients should be advised to consider participation in them whenever possible. Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent intraocular melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be
Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current