Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage II Melanoma Treatment
Stage II melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:T2b, N0, M0T3a, N0, M0T3b, N0, M0T4a, N0, M0T4b, N0, M0Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage II MelanomaCurrent evidence suggests that for melanomas with a thickness between 2 mm and 4 mm, the surgical margins need to be 2 cm or less. The Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial compared 2-cm margins versus 4-cm margins for patients with 1-mm thick melanomas to 4-mm thick melanomas. With a median follow-up of more than 10 years, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of local recurrence or survival. The reduction in margins from 4 cm to 2 cm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the need for skin grafting (46% to11%; P < .001) and a reduction in the length of the hospital stay. Depending on the location of the melanoma, most patients can now have this surgery performed on an outpatient basis. A study conducted in
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Medium and Large Choroidal Melanoma
Eye-sparing radiation therapy, either by plaque brachytherapy or external beam, is the preferred option for most patients with medium-sized choroidal melanoma. Enucleation remains the standard therapy for large, choroidal melanomas and melanomas that cause severe glaucoma or invade the optic nerve. Standard treatment options:Tumor growth pattern is a factor in the therapeutic decision. If there is a diffuse melanoma or if there is extraocular extension, enucleation should be considered, but radiation therapy can be employed for less extensive disease. Medium-sized choroidal melanomasPlaque radiation therapy.[1,2,3,4]External-beam, charged-particle radiation therapy: This approach is offered at specialized referral centers. It requires careful patient cooperation, with voluntary fixation of gaze.[5,6,7]Local eye-wall resection.[8,9]Combined therapy, with ablative laser coagulation or transpupillary thermotherapy to supplement plaque treatment.[10,11]Enucleation. This approach is
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of intraocular melanoma. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment
Incidence and MortalityMelanoma of the uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, and choroid), though rare, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. The mean age-adjusted incidence of uveal melanoma in the United States is approximately 4.3 new cases per million population, with no clear variation by latitude. Males have a higher incidence than females (4.9 vs. 3.7 per million). The age-adjusted incidence of this cancer has remained stable since at least the early 1970s.[1,2] U.S. incidence rates are low compared with the rates of other reporting countries, which vary from about 5.3 to 10.9 cases per million. Some of the variation may be the result of differences in inclusion criteria and methods of calculation.Uveal melanoma is diagnosed mostly at older ages, with a progressively rising, age-specific, incidence rate that peaks near the age of 70 years. Host susceptibility factors associated with the development of this cancer include:[2,3,4]Caucasian race.Light
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (06 / 27 / 2014)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Melanoma
Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin cells called melanocytes (cells that color the skin). Melanocytes are found throughout the lower part of the epidermis. They produce melanin,the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun,melanocytes produce more pigment,causing the skin to tan,or darken. The skin is the body’s largest ..
Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Melanoma
IntroductionBoth rare, high-penetrance and common, low-penetrance genetic factors for melanoma have been identified, and approximately 5% to 10% of all melanomas arise in multiple-case families. However, a significant fraction of these families do not have detectable mutations in specific susceptibility genes. The frequency with which multiple-case families are ascertained and specific genetic mutations are identified varies significantly between populations and geographic regions. A major population-based study has concluded that the high-penetrance susceptibility gene CDKN2A does not make a significant contribution to the incidence of melanoma.Risk Factors for MelanomaSun exposureSun exposure is the major known environmental factor associated with the development of skin cancer of all types. There are different patterns of sun exposure associated with each major type of skin cancer: basal cell
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary is a disease in which squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck and it is not known where the cancer first formed in the body. Squamous cells are thin,flat cells found in tissues that form the surface of the skin and the lining of body cavities such as the mouth,hollow organs such as the uterus and blood vessels,and the lining ...