Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Iris Melanoma
Melanocytic stromal proliferations and nevi of the iris are the most common tumors of the iris, but melanoma is rare.[1,2] Clinical differentiation between an iris nevus and a melanoma might sometimes be difficult and at times may be impossible. Melanomas of the iris are usually small discrete lesions, though they may occasionally be diffuse, infiltrative, or multiple, and they may result in heterochromia, chronic uveitis, or spontaneous hemorrhage into the anterior chamber of the eye (hyphema). Iris melanomas that involve more than 66% of the angle circumference are associated with secondary glaucoma.Routine evaluation of iris melanomas includes gonioscopy, transillumination of the globe, and indirect ophthalmoscopy with 360° of scleral depression. Photographic documentation is essential to document progression in size or growth of the tumor. Anterior segment fluorescein angiography may be helpful to demonstrate the vascularity of the lesion but is not diagnostic.
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Cellular and Molecular Classification of Melanoma
Following is a list of clinicopathologic cellular subtypes of malignant melanoma. These should be considered descriptive terms of historic interest only as they do not have independent prognostic or therapeutic significance. Superficial spreading.Nodular.Lentigo maligna.Acral lentiginous (palmar/plantar and subungual).Miscellaneous unusual types: Mucosal lentiginous (oral and genital).Desmoplastic.Verrucous. Identification of activating mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway has led to the definition of molecular subtypes of melanoma and provided potential drug targets.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) gene, first reported in 2002, are the most frequent mutation in cutaneous melanoma. Approximately 40% to 60% of malignant melanomas harbor a single nucleotide transversion. The majority have a mutation that results in a substitution from valine to glutamic acid at position 600 BRAF (V600E); less frequent mutations include valine 600 to lysine or
Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (05 / 17 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258020-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000258015-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Intraocular (Eye) Melanoma Treatment
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Classification and Stage Information for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma
Tumor SizeUveal melanoma most often assumes a nodular or dome-shaped configuration, but occasionally tumors can be flat or diffuse and involve extensive areas of the uvea with little elevation. Tumor size classifications according to boundary lines used in a Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) are as follows: Small: Range from 1.0 mm to 3.0 mm in apical height and largest basal diameter of 5.0 to 16.0 mm. Medium: Range from 3.1 to 8.0 mm in apical height and a basal diameter of not more than 16.0 mm. Large: Greater than 8.0 mm in apical height or a basal diameter more than 16.0 mm, when the apical height is at least 2.0 mm.Although most ocular melanomas have a raised configuration, about 5% grow in a diffuse pattern that also may have prognostic significance. The tumors have a horizontal, flat-growth pattern, with the thickness measuring approximately 20% or less than the greatest basal dimension. This uncommon variant of uveal
Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma
The prognosis for any patient with recurring or relapsing disease is poor, regardless of cell type or stage. The question and selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including the extent of the lesion, age and health of the patient, prior treatment, and site of recurrence, as well as individual patient considerations. Surgical resection of metastases diagnosed subsequent to initial management of ocular melanoma in single-center, case series of highly selected patients has been reported. The extent to which the occasional favorable outcomes are the result of strong selection factors is not clear, so this approach cannot be considered standard.Clinical trials are appropriate, and eligible patients should be advised to consider participation in them whenever possible. Current Clinical TrialsCheck for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent intraocular melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be
Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary
For more information from the National Cancer Institute about metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary, see the following:Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Home PageHead and Neck Cancer Home PageOral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck RadiationMetastatic CancerFor general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI
Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support
Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview
There are different types of treatment for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Different types of treatment are available for patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.Five types of standard treatment are used:Surgery One or more of the following surgical procedures may be used to treat nonmelanoma skin cancer or actinic keratosis:Mohs micrographic surgery: The tumor is cut from the skin in thin layers.