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Melanoma/Skin Cancer Health Center

Medical Reference Related to Melanoma Skin Cancer

  1. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Melanoma

    Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the skin cells called melanocytes (cells that color the skin). Melanocytes are found throughout the lower part of the epidermis. They produce melanin,the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun,melanocytes produce more pigment,causing the skin to tan,or darken. The skin is the body’s largest ..

  2. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Rare Skin Cancer Syndromes

    Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome, Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma, and Familial CylindromatosisBrooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis, and multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) are all autosomal dominant syndromes with overlapping clinical characteristics with allelic variance.[1] Features of BSS include multiple skin appendage tumors such as cylindromas (tumors arising in the hair follicle stem cells), trichoepitheliomas (tumors arising in the hair follicle), and spiradenomas (benign tumors arising in the sweat gland). MFT is characterized by nonmalignant skin tumors, primarily trichoepitheliomas, and familial cylindromatosis manifests predominantly as cutaneous cylindromas. Onset of tumors for these syndromes is typically in late childhood or early adolescence, suggesting a hormonal influence.[2] There is some evidence of greater severity in females than in males. UV radiation appears to be a major initiating factor for cylindromas. Typical tumor sites for

  3. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of skin cancer screening tests include the following: Finding skin cancer does not always improve health or help you live longer. Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced skin cancer.Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. Treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal even though cancer is present. A person who receives a false-negative test result (one that shows there is no cancer when there really is) may delay getting medical

  4. Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Skin Cancer

    After nonmelanoma skin cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the skin or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the skin or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of

  5. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    After intraocular melanoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:Blood chemistry studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.Liver function tests: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances released into the blood by the liver. A higher than normal amount of a substance can be a sign the cancer has spread to the

  6. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Skin Cancer Screening

    Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer.Some screening tests are used because they have been shown to be helpful both in finding cancers early and in decreasing the chance of dying from these cancers. Other tests are used because they have been shown to find cancer in some people; however, it has not been proven in clinical trials that use of these tests will decrease the risk of dying from cancer. Scientists study screening tests to find those with the fewest risks and most benefits. Cancer screening trials also are meant to show whether early detection (finding cancer before it causes symptoms) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, finding and treating the disease at an early stage may result in a better chance of recovery.Clinical trials that study cancer screening methods are taking place in many parts of the country. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site. Skin exams are used to screen

  7. Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (11 / 09 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.This summary was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  8. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV and Recurrent Melanoma

    Stage IV melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]Any T, any N, M1Treatment Options for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent MelanomaImmunotherapy.Checkpoint inhibitors.Interleukin-2 (IL-2).Signal transduction inhibitors.BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitors (for patients who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation).MEK inhibitors.Multikinase inhibitors.KIT inhibitors.Chemotherapy.Palliative local therapy.Clinical trials should be strongly considered because of the rapid advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.Treatment option overview for patients with stage IV and recurrent melanomaAlthough melanoma that has spread to distant sites is rarely curable, two approaches have demonstrated clinical benefit by prolonging overall survival (OS) in randomized trials:

  9. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about skin cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which

  10. Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Melanoma

    Stage III melanoma is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]Any T, N1, M0Any T, N2, M0Any T, N3, M0Standard Treatment Options for Patients With Stage III MelanomaWide local excision of the primary tumor with 1 cm to 3 cm margins, depending on tumor thickness and location.[2,3,4,5,6,7,8] Skin grafting may be necessary to close the resulting defect.High-dose or pegylated interferon alpha-2b as adjuvant treatment for patients who have undergone a complete surgical resection but are considered to be at high risk for relapse.Ipilimumab for patients with unresectable disease.Vemurafenib for patients with unresectable disease who test positive for the BRAF V600 mutation in a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved test.Adjuvant Treatment Options for Patients With Resected Stage III DiseaseProspective, randomized, multicenter treatment trials have demonstrated that high-dose interferon alpha-2b and pegylated interferon do not improve overall

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