Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common form of skin cancer. It’s usually found on areas of the body damaged by UV rays from the sun or tanning beds. Sun-exposed skin includes the head, neck, ears, lips, arms, legs, and hands.
SCC is a fairly slow-growing skin cancer. Unlike other types of skin cancer, it can spread to the tissues, bones, and nearby lymph nodes, where it may become hard to treat. When caught early, it’s easy to treat.
Incidence and mortality
There are three main types of skin cancer:
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (together with BCC referred to as nonmelanoma skincancer [NMSC]).
BCC and SCC are the most common forms of skin cancer but have substantially better prognoses than the less common, generally more aggressive, melanoma.
NMSC is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United States. Its incidence appears to...
SCC usually begins as a dome-shaped bump or a red, scaly patch of skin. It’s usually rough and crusty, and can bleed easily when scraped. Large growths may itch or hurt. It may also pop through scars or chronic skin sores, so check for any changes and report them to your doctor.
How It's Diagnosed
Your doctor may refer you to a dermatologist who specializes in skin conditions. He will ask about your medical history, your history of severe sunburns or indoor tanning, any pain or symptoms you're having, and when the spot first appeared.
You'll have a physical exam to check the size, shape, color, and texture of the spot. The dermatologist will also look for other spots on your body and feel your lymph nodes to make sure they aren’t bigger or harder than normal. If your doctor thinks a bump looks questionable, he'll remove a sample of the spot (a skin biopsy) to send to a lab for testing.
Squamous cell carcinoma can usually be treated with minor surgery that can be done in a doctor’s office or hospital clinic. Depending on the size and location of the SCC, your doctor may choose to use any of the following techniques to remove it:
Excision: cutting out the cancer spot and some healthy skin around it
Surgery using a small hand tool and an electronic needle to kill cancer cells
Mohs surgery: excision and then inspecting the excised skin using a microscope
Lymph node surgery: remove a piece of the lymph node; uses general anesthesia
Dermabrasion: "sanding" your affected area of skin with a tool to make way for a new layer
Cryosurgery: freezing of the spot using liquid nitrogen
Topical chemotherapy: a gel or cream applied to the skin
Targeted drug treatment
How to Protect Yourself
Avoid the sun during peak hours.
Use sunscreen daily.
Wear clothing to cover exposed areas.
Avoid tanning beds.
If you’ve been diagnosed with skin cancer, you're more likely to get it again -- so visit your doctor for regular skin checks.