If you are at risk for skin cancer, take the following precautions whenever possible:
Avoid intense sun exposure by staying out of it from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m..
Outside, wear a hat with a brim, long sleeves, trousers, and sunglasses that block UV radiation.
Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher whenever you are outside.
Report suspicious skin lesions to a doctor at once, especially if you have abnormal-looking moles or a family history of melanoma.
Added text to state that several sets of clinical diagnostic criteria for basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) are in use (cited Evans et al. and Veenstra-Knol et al. as references 66 and 68, respectively). Also added text to state that although each set of criteria has advantages and disadvantages, none of the sets have a clearly superior balance of sensitivity and specificity for identifying mutation carriers; PTCH1 mutations are found in 60% to 85% of patients who meet clinical criteria (cited Klein et al. as reference 69).
Added Table 1, Comparison of Diagnostic Criteria for BCNS.
Added text about a 9p22.3 microdeletion syndrome that includes the PTCH1 locus that has been described in ten children, all of whom had facial features of BCNS (cited Muller et al. as reference 109).
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Added American Cancer Society as reference 1.
Added Doubaj et al. as reference 62.
Added text to state that mutations in C16orf57 are associated with poikiloderma with neutropenia (cited Colombo et al. as reference 151).
Added text to state that mutations in C16orf57 have been identified in individuals with dyskeratosis congenita and poikiloderma with neutropenia, in addition to Rothmund-Thompson syndrome, suggesting that these syndromes are related; however, skin cancer risk in these conditions is not well characterized.
Added text about the Genes, Environment, and Melanoma study, which showed that first-degree relatives of CDKN2A mutation carriers with melanoma had an approximately 50% increased risk of cancers other than melanoma, compared with first-degree relatives of other melanoma patients (cited Mukherjee et al. as reference 88).
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