Most skin cancers are detected and cured before they spread. Melanoma that has spread to other organs presents the greatest treatment challenge.
Standard treatments for localized basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are safe and effective. Small tumors can be surgically excised, removed with a scraping tool (curette) and then cauterized, frozen with liquid nitrogen, or killed with low-dose radiation. Applying an ointment containing a chemotherapeutic agent called 5-fluorouracil -- or an immune...
Added text about the association of intense, intermittent recreational sun exposure with melanoma and BCC, and chronic occupational sun exposure with squamous cell carcinoma. Also added text about available data regarding regular sunscreen use and skin cancer risk reduction (cited Green et al. [J Epidemiol 1999] as reference 5, Pandeya et al. as reference 6, and Green et al. [Lancet 1999] as reference 7).
Added text to state that tanning bed use has also been associated with an increased risk of BCC. Also added text about a study of 376 individuals with BCC and 390 control subjects that found a 69% increased risk of BCC in individuals who had ever used indoor tanning (cited Ferrucci et al. as reference 2).
Added level of evidence (sun-protective clothing, avoidance of sun exposure): 4aii and level of evidence (sunscreen): 1aii.
Added text to state that palmoplantar pits are a major finding in BCC and occur in 70% to 80% of individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS); when these pits occur together with early-onset BCC and/or keratocystic odontogenic tumors, they are considered diagnostic for BCNS (cited North et al. as reference 109).
Added National Comprehensive Cancer Network as reference 141.
Added Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) as a new subsection.
Added text about a study of Norwegian melanoma cases and controls that showed that CDKN2A mutation carriers had an increased risk of melanoma when they carried either the Arg160Trp or Asp84Glu MC1R variants (cited Helsing et al. as reference 128).
Added Salerni et al. as reference 139.
This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Genetics Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
In this article
This information is produced and provided by the National
Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National
Institute via the Internet web site at http://
.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.
WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor.
Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this