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Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Small Choroidal Melanoma


Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with ciliary body and choroid melanoma, small size. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


  1. Diener-West M, Hawkins BS, Markowitz JA, et al.: A review of mortality from choroidal melanoma. II. A meta-analysis of 5-year mortality rates following enucleation, 1966 through 1988. Arch Ophthalmol 110 (2): 245-50, 1992.
  2. Mortality in patients with small choroidal melanoma. COMS report no. 4. The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study Group. Arch Ophthalmol 115 (7): 886-93, 1997.
  3. Shields CL, Shields JA, Kiratli H, et al.: Risk factors for growth and metastasis of small choroidal melanocytic lesions. Ophthalmology 102 (9): 1351-61, 1995.
  4. Shields CL, Cater J, Shields JA, et al.: Combination of clinical factors predictive of growth of small choroidal melanocytic tumors. Arch Ophthalmol 118 (3): 360-4, 2000.
  5. Shields CL, Shields JA, Perez N, et al.: Primary transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma in 256 consecutive cases: outcomes and limitations. Ophthalmology 109 (2): 225-34, 2002.
  6. Robertson DM, Buettner H, Bennett SR: Transpupillary thermotherapy as primary treatment for small choroidal melanomas. Arch Ophthalmol 117 (11): 1512-9, 1999.
  7. Shields CL, Shields JA, Gündüz K, et al.: Radiation therapy for uveal malignant melanoma. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 29 (5): 397-409, 1998.
  8. Finger PT: Radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma. Surv Ophthalmol 42 (3): 215-32, 1997 Nov-Dec.
  9. Munzenrider JE: Uveal melanomas. Conservation treatment. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 15 (2): 389-402, 2001.
  10. Char DH, Kroll SM, Castro J: Ten-year follow-up of helium ion therapy for uveal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 125 (1): 81-9, 1998.
  11. Woodburn R, Danis R, Timmerman R, et al.: Preliminary experience in the treatment of choroidal melanoma with gamma knife radiosurgery. J Neurosurg 93 (Suppl 3): 177-9, 2000.
  12. Modorati G, Miserocchi E, Galli L, et al.: Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma: 12 years of experience. Br J Ophthalmol 93 (1): 40-4, 2009.
  13. Muller K, Nowak PJ, de Pan C, et al.: Effectiveness of fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for uveal melanoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63 (1): 116-22, 2005.
  14. Shields CL, Shields JA: Transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 10 (3): 197-203, 1999.
  15. Godfrey DG, Waldron RG, Capone A Jr: Transpupillary thermotherapy for small choroidal melanoma. Am J Ophthalmol 128 (1): 88-93, 1999.
  16. Bartlema YM, Oosterhuis JA, Journée-De Korver JG, et al.: Combined plaque radiotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy in choroidal melanoma: 5 years' experience. Br J Ophthalmol 87 (11): 1370-3, 2003.
  17. Harbour JW, Meredith TA, Thompson PA, et al.: Transpupillary thermotherapy versus plaque radiotherapy for suspected choroidal melanomas. Ophthalmology 110 (11): 2207-14; discussion 2215, 2003.
  18. Pilotto E, Vujosevic S, De Belvis V, et al.: Long-term choroidal vascular changes after iodine brachytherapy versus transpupillary thermotherapy for choroidal melanoma. Eur J Ophthalmol 19 (4): 646-53, 2009 Jul-Aug.
  19. Char DH, Miller T, Crawford JB: Uveal tumour resection. Br J Ophthalmol 85 (10): 1213-9, 2001.
  20. Shields JA, Shields CL: Atlas of Intraocular Tumors. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: September 04, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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