Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Melanoma
Being white or having a fair complexion increases the risk of melanoma, but anyone can have melanoma, including people with dark skin.
Signs of melanoma include a change in the appearance of a mole or pigmented area.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by melanoma or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- A mole that:
- changes in size, shape, or color.
- has irregular edges or borders.
- is more than one color.
- is asymmetrical (if the mole is divided in half, the 2 halves are different in size or shape).
- oozes, bleeds, or is ulcerated (a hole forms in the skin when the top layer of cells breaks down and the tissue below shows through).
- A change in pigmented (colored) skin.
- Satellite moles (new moles that grow near an existing mole).
For pictures and descriptions of common moles and melanoma, see Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma.
Tests that examine the skin are used to detect (find) and diagnose melanoma.
If a mole or pigmented area of the skin changes or looks abnormal, the following tests and procedures can help find and diagnose melanoma:
- Skin exam: A doctor or nurse checks the skin for moles, birthmarks, or other pigmented areas that look abnormal in color, size, shape, or texture.
- Biopsy: A procedure to remove the abnormal tissue and a small amount of normal tissue around it. A pathologist looks at the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells. It can be hard to tell the difference between a colored mole and an early melanoma lesion. Patients may want to have the sample of tissue checked by a second pathologist. If the abnormal mole or lesion is cancer, the sample of tissue may also be tested for certain gene changes.
A biopsy should be done on any abnormal areas of the skin. These areas should not be shaved off or cauterized (destroyed with a hot instrument, an electric current, or a caustic substance).
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
- The thickness of the tumor and where it is in the body.
- How quickly the cancer cells are dividing.
- Whether there was bleeding or ulceration at the primary site.
- Whether cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or to other places in the body.
- The number of places cancer has spread to in the body and the level of lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) in the blood.
- Whether the cancer has certain mutations (changes) in a gene called BRAF.
- The patient's general health.