Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the skin.
The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. The skin has several layers, but the two main layers are the epidermis (upper or outer layer) and the dermis (lower or inner layer).
The epidermis is made up of 3 kinds of cells:
Squamous cells are the thin, flat cells that...
Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).
Cellular and Molecular Classification of Melanoma
Added Carvajal et al. as reference 6.
Stage IV and Recurrent Melanoma
Revised text of the signal transduction inhibitors treatment option to include BRAF inhibitors.
Added text to include a treatment option that states that clinical trials should be considered because of the advances in the development of novel agents and combinations of agents designed to reverse or interrupt aberrant molecular pathways that support tumor growth.
Added text to state that studies to date indicate that both BRAF and MEK (mitogen-activated ERK-[extracellular signal-regulated kinase] activating kinase) inhibitors can significantly impact the natural history of melanoma, although they do not appear to provide a cure as single agents.
Added Dabrafenib as a new subsection.
Added MEK inhibitors as a new subsection.
Added Combinatorial Therapy with Signal Transduction Inhibitors as a new subsection.
Added KIT inhibitors as a new subsection.
Added text to state that an extended schedule and escalated dose of TMZ was compared with DTIC in a multicenter trial randomly assigning 859 patients, but no improvement was seen in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival for the TMZ group, and this dose and schedule resulted in more toxicity than the standard dose, single-agent DTIC (cited Patel et al. as reference 40 and level of evidence 1iiA).
Added text to state that the design of two recent randomized, phase III trials in previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma included DTIC as the standard therapy arm; vemurafenib and ipilimumab showed superior OS compared with DTIC in the two separate trials.
Added text to include signal transduction inhibitors, including phosphoinositide-3 kinase and Akt inhibitors as a treatment option.
Added text to the antiangiogenesis agents treatment option to state that preclinical data suggest that increased vascular endothelial growth factor production may be implicated in resistance to BRAF inhibitors (cited Martin et al. as reference 44)..
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