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Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV and Recurrent Melanoma


Other Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Patients With Stage IV and Recurrent Melanoma

  1. Immunotherapy, including anti-PD-1 and vaccines.
  2. Signal transduction inhibitors, including P13K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase) and Akt (protein kinase B inhibitors).
  3. Antiangiogenesis agents. Preclinical data suggest that increased vascular endothelial growth factor production may be implicated in resistance to BRAF inhibitors.[44]
  4. Intralesional injections; for example, oncologic viruses.
  5. Complete surgical resection of all known disease versus best medical therapy.

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IV melanoma and recurrent melanoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


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  19. Hodi FS, O'Day SJ, McDermott DF, et al.: Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. N Engl J Med 363 (8): 711-23, 2010.
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  24. Heidorn SJ, Milagre C, Whittaker S, et al.: Kinase-dead BRAF and oncogenic RAS cooperate to drive tumor progression through CRAF. Cell 140 (2): 209-21, 2010.
  25. Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, et al.: RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature 464 (7287): 431-5, 2010.
  26. Poulikakos PI, Zhang C, Bollag G, et al.: RAF inhibitors transactivate RAF dimers and ERK signalling in cells with wild-type BRAF. Nature 464 (7287): 427-30, 2010.
  27. Su F, Viros A, Milagre C, et al.: RAS mutations in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. N Engl J Med 366 (3): 207-15, 2012.
  28. Sosman JA, Kim KB, Schuchter L, et al.: Survival in BRAF V600-mutant advanced melanoma treated with vemurafenib. N Engl J Med 366 (8): 707-14, 2012.
  29. Hauschild A, Grob JJ, Demidov LV, et al.: Phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial (BREAK-3) comparing the BRAF kinase inhibitor dabrafenib (GSK2118436) with dacarbazine in patients with BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma. [Abstract] J Clin Oncol 30 (Suppl 15): A-LBA8500, 2012.
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  34. Hodi FS, Friedlander P, Corless CL, et al.: Major response to imatinib mesylate in KIT-mutated melanoma. J Clin Oncol 26 (12): 2046-51, 2008.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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