There are different types of treatments for patients with intraocular melanoma.
Different types of treatments are available for patients with intraocular melanoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
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Surgery is the most common treatment for intraocular melanoma. The following types of surgery may be used:
Local tumor resection: Surgery to remove the tumor and a small amount of healthy tissue around it.
Enucleation: Surgery to remove the eye and part of the optic nerve. This is done if the tumor is large and vision cannot be saved. The patient may be fitted for an artificial eye after enucleation.
Exenteration: Surgery to remove the eye and eyelid, and muscles, nerves, and fat in the eye socket. The patient may be fitted for an artificial eye or facial prosthesis after exenteration.
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient's condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. A series of pictures is taken over time to keep track of changes in the size of the tumor and how fast it is growing.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Localized plaque radiation therapy is a type of internal radiation therapy that may be used for tumors of the eye. Radioactive seeds are attached to a disk, called a plaque, and placed directly on the wall of the eye where the tumor is located. The side with the seeds faces the eyeball and delivers radiation to the eye. The plaque, which is often made of gold, helps protect nearby tissues from radiation damage.
Charged-particle radiation therapy is a type of external radiation therapy. A special radiation therapy machine aims tiny, invisible particles, called protons or helium ions, at the cancer cells to kill them with little damage to nearby normal tissues. Charged-particle radiation therapy uses a different type of radiation than the x-ray type of radiation therapy.