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Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Skin Cancer

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In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the squamous cell or basal cell layer of the epidermis (topmost layer of the skin). These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

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Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

Stage I

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Stage I nonmelanoma skin cancer. The tumor is no more than 2 centimeters.

In stage I, cancer has formed. The tumor is not larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point and may have one high-risk feature.

Stage II

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Stage II nonmelanoma skin cancer. The tumor is more than 2 centimeters wide.

In stage II, the tumor is either:

  • larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; or
  • any size and has two or more high-risk features.

Stage III

In stage III:

  • The tumor has spread to the jaw, eye socket, or side of the skull. Cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor. The lymph node is not larger than 3 centimeters.

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Stage III nonmelanoma skin cancer (1). Cancer has spread from the primary tumor to bones of the jaw, eye socket, or side of the skull.

or

  • Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor. The lymph node is not larger than 3 centimeters and one of the following is true:
    • the tumor is not larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point and may have one high-risk feature; or
    • the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; or
    • the tumor is any size and has two or more high-risk features.

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Stage III nonmelanoma skin cancer (2). Cancer has spread to one lymph node that is 3 centimeters or smaller and is on the same side of the body as the primary tumor. Also, the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller at its widest point and may have one high-risk feature; OR the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters at its widest point; OR the tumor is any size and has two or more high-risk features. There are five high-risk features: (1) the tumor is thicker than 2 millimeters; (2) the tumor has spread into the lower layer of the skin or into the layer of fat below the skin; (3) the tumor has grown and spread along nerve pathways; (4) the tumor began on an ear or on a lip that has hair on it; and (5) the tumor has cells that look very different from normal cells under a microscope.

Stage IV

In stage IV, one of the following is true:

  • The tumor is any size and may have spread to the jaw, eye socket, or side of the skull. Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the body as the tumor and the affected node is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters, or cancer has spread to more than one lymph node on one or both sides of the body and the affected nodes are not larger than 6 centimeters; or
  • The tumor is any size and may have spread to the jaw, eye socket, skull, spine, or ribs. Cancer has spread to one lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters; or
    cdr0000600819.jpg
    Stage IV nonmelanoma skin cancer (1). The tumor is any size. Cancer has spread to one lymph node that is larger than 3 centimeters but not larger than 6 centimeters and is on the same side of the body as the tumor; OR to more than one lymph node 6 centimeters or smaller on one or both sides of the body; OR to one lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters.
  • The tumor is any size and has spread to the base of the skull, spine, or ribs. Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes; or
  • Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as the lung.
    cdr0000726760.jpg
    Stage IV nonmelanoma skin cancer (2). The tumor is any size and has spread to the base of the skull, spine, ribs, lung, or other parts of the body.
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