All potentially cancerous skin growths must be biopsied to confirm a cancer diagnosis. Depending on the suspected type of skin cancer, the biopsy techniques vary slightly but crucially.
Any potential melanoma requires a surgical biopsy, in which the entire growth is removed with a scalpel if possible. A pathologist then studies the sample under a microscope to determine whether cancer cells are present.
Incidence and mortality
There are three main types of skin cancer:
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (together with BCC referred to as nonmelanoma skincancer [NMSC]).
BCC and SCC are the most common forms of skin cancer but have substantially better prognoses than the less common, generally more aggressive, melanoma.
NMSC is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United States. Its incidence appears to...
If melanoma is diagnosed, other tests may be ordered to assess the degree of cancer spread (metastasis). They include:
Imaging. Your doctor will order one or more tests to look for metastasis. They include CT scan, MRI, PET scan, bone scan, and chest X-ray.
Other biopsies. Using a variety of techniques, your doctor may want to get tissue samples from lymph nodes.
Skin growths that are most likely basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or other forms of nonmelanoma can be biopsied in various ways. Part or all of the growth can be taken with a scalpel for examination under a microscope.
What Are the Treatments for Skin Cancer?
Most skin cancers are detected and cured before they spread. Melanoma that has spread to other organs presents the greatest treatment challenge.
Standard treatments for localized basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas are safe and effective and cause few side effects. Small tumors can be surgically excised, removed with skin scraping and electric current cauterization, frozen with liquid nitrogen, or killed with low-dose radiation.
In rare cases where basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma has begun to spread beyond the local skin site, the primary tumors are first removed surgically. Then patients may be treated with radiation, immunotherapy in the form of interferon, and rarely, chemotherapy. However, responses to this therapy are infrequent and short-lived. Rare patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma respond well to a combination of retinoic acid (a derivative of vitamin A) and interferon (a type of disease-fighting protein produced in labs for cancer immunotherapy). Retinoic acid may inhibit cancer recurrence in patients who have had tumors removed.
Melanoma tumors must be removed surgically, preferably before they spread beyond the skin into other organs. The surgeon removes the tumor fully, along with a safe margin of surrounding tissue and possibly nearby lymph nodes. Neither radiation nor chemotherapy will cure advanced melanoma, but either treatment may slow the disease and relieve symptoms. Chemotherapy, sometimes in combination with immunotherapy -- such as interferon, interleukin-2 -- is generally preferred. If melanoma spreads to the brain, radiation is used to slow the growth and control symptoms.