Orchitis can result from the spread of bacteria through the blood from other locations in your body. It also can be a progression of epididymitis, an infection of the tube that carries semen out of the testicles. This is called epididymo-orchitis.
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Bacteria that cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD), such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis, can cause orchitis in sexually active men, usually aged 19-35 years. You may be at risk if you have many sexual partners, are involved in high-risk sexual behaviors such as unprotected sex, if your sexual partner has had an STD, or if you have a history of STDs.
The virus that causes mumps can cause orchitis, as well. Most common in young boys (rare in boys younger than 10 years), orchitis begins four to six days after mumps begins. A third of boys with mumps will develop orchitis and end up with a condition called testicular atrophy (shrinking of the testicles). That’s why it is so critical for all children, boys especially, to have shots to protect them from getting the childhood disease of mumps.
You may be at risk for non-sexually transmitted orchitis if you haven’t had proper vaccination against mumps, if you get urinary tract infections, if you are older than age 45, or if you frequently have a catheter placed into your bladder.
With orchitis, you may have a rapid onset of pain in one or both testicles that may spread to the groin.
One or both of your testicles may appear tender, swollen, and red or purple.
You might have a "heavy feeling" in the swollen testicle.