Natural menopause is the permanent ending of menstruation that is not brought on by any type of medical treatment. For women undergoing natural menopause, the process is described in three stages: perimenopause (premenopause), menopause, and postmenopause.
However, not all women undergo natural menopause. Some women experience induced menopause as a result of surgery or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy.
1. When can I stop worrying about getting pregnant?
2. What kind of birth control is best for me during perimenopause (the time leading up to menopause)?
3. How might my sex drive change as I approach menopause?
4. I'm not in the mood for sex as much as I used to be. Is it because I’m going through menopause, or could it be something else?
5. What can I do to get my sex drive back?
6. What can hormone replacement therapy do for my sex life? What are the risks?
7. What do I do about dryness...
Surgical menopause occurs when a premenopausal woman has her ovaries surgically removed in a procedure called a bilateral oophorectomy. This causes an abrupt menopause, with women often experiencing more severe menopausal symptoms than they would if they were to experience menopause naturally.
Hysterectomy (the surgical removal of the uterus) can sometimes, though not always, include bilateral oophorectomy. Hysterectomy that does not involve removal of the ovaries usually does not result in menopause. Even though menses will stop once the uterus is removed, the ovaries will probably continue to function.
Other surgeries that may involve the removal of both ovaries include:
Abdominal resection. This is a surgical procedure done to treat colon and rectal cancer. While this surgery usually involves the removal of the lower colon and rectum, it can also include partial or total removal of the uterus and ovaries, as well as the rear wall of the vagina.
Total pelvic exenteration. This procedure is usually only performed in cases of cervical cancer that recurs despite treatment with surgery and radiation. It involves the removal of most pelvic organs, including the uterus, cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes, vagina, bladder, urethra, and part of the rectum.
What Medical Treatments Can Cause Menopause?
Medical treatments such as chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy can cause menopause by damaging the ovaries. However, not all premenopausal women undergoing these procedures will experience induced menopause. Additionally, even if the ovaries are damaged, the damage is not always permanent.