Hypochondria, also called hypochondriasis, is a type of mental illness -- current thinking classifies it as an anxiety disorder -- in which a person has symptoms of a medical illness, but the symptoms cannot be fully explained by an actual physical disorder.
People with hypochondria are very worried about getting a disease or are certain they have a disease, even after medical tests show they do not. Further, these people often misinterpret minor health problems or normal body functions as symptoms of a serious disease. An example is a person who is sure that her headaches are caused by a brain tumor. The symptoms associated with hypochondria are not under the person's voluntary control, and can cause great distress and/or can interfere with a person's normal functioning.
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Hypochondria can occur at any time of life, but most often begins in early adulthood. It appears to affect men and women equally.
What Are the Symptoms of Hypochondria?
Most people with hypochondria -- often called hypochondriacs -- are worried about having a physical illness. The symptoms they describe can range from general complaints, such as pain or tiredness, to concerns about normal body functions, such as breathing or stomach noises. People with hypochondria are not faking or lying about their symptoms; they truly believe they are sick.
Warning signs that a person might have hypochondria include:
The person has a history of going to many doctors. He or she may even "shop around" for a doctor who will agree that he or she has a serious illness.
The person recently experienced a loss or stressful event.
The person is overly concerned about a specific organ or body system, such as the heart or the digestive system.
The person's symptoms or area of concern might shift or change.
A doctor's reassurance does not calm the person's fears; he or she believes the doctor is wrong or made a mistake.
The person's concern about illness interferes with his or her work, family, and social life.
The exact cause of hypochondria is not known. Factors that might be involved in the development of the disorder include:
A history of physical or sexual abuse
A history of having a serious illness as a child
A poor ability to express emotions
A parent or close relative with the disorder; children might learn this behavior if a parent is overly concerned about disease and/or overreacts to even minor illnesses.
An inherited susceptibility for the disorder
How Is Hypochondria Diagnosed?
Diagnosing hypochondria can be very difficult, because people with the disorder are convinced their symptoms are caused by a medical illness.
When symptoms appear, the doctor will begin his or her evaluation with a complete history and physical exam. If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she might refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, health care professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. The psychiatrist or psychologist makes a diagnosis based on his or her assessment of the person's attitude and behavior, and the fact that physical illness has been ruled out as the cause of the symptoms. The psychiatrist or psychologist may administer a personality assessment to confirm the diagnosis of hypochondria.