'Presenteeism' Hurts Employees and Employers
Sluggish Employees Cost Companies More Than Sick Days
April 23, 2004 -- Employees who come to work even when they're
aren't feeling well may end up costing companies more in lost productivity than
their employers pay for sick days and other medical and disability
A new study shows that work slowdowns caused by illness on the
job, known as "presenteeism," may account for up to 60% of employer
health costs. Researchers say the findings suggest that companies may need to
take another look at their health care spending.
"In this day and age where employers are hesitant to hire
because of skyrocketing medical care costs, it's important to broaden the view
of health costs beyond the cost of patient care," says researcher Ron
Goetzel, PhD, of the Cornell University Institute for Health and Productivity
Studies, in a news release.
The study showed that for some common conditions, such as
allergies and headaches, on-the-job productivity losses may account for more
than 80% of the employer's total health care costs.
"If a company's health plan is poor, for example, disorders
may not be well managed. Workers will continue to work and not be as
productive," says Goetzel. "Employers need to weigh the costs of good
medical care against the potential for on-the-job productivity losses, which we
see are substantial in many areas."
Presenteeism Costs Employers
In the study, published in the April issue of the Journal of
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, researchers calculated an average
as well as a low estimate for on-the-job productivity losses caused by common
health conditions and compared it with other costs associated with the
The estimates were based on a database of about 375,000
employees, which included information on insurance claims for medical care and
short-term disability over three years. Researchers then combined this
information with the findings of five published productivity surveys for 10
health conditions that most commonly affect workers.
The study showed that for many conditions, the costs of
presenteeism were far greater than other employer-related health care costs,
such as absenteeism or health and disability benefits. For example,
presenteeism due to headaches accounted for 89% of the total cost of
productivity losses using average estimates and 49% using low estimates. For
allergies, the costs of on-the-job productivity losses accounted for as much as
82% and as little as 55%.
"All in all, this means that from about one-fifth to
three-fifths of the total dollars attributable to common health conditions
faced by employers appear to be the result of on-the-job productivity
losses," says Goetzel.
When other costs were added to losses from presenteeism,
absenteeism, and health and disability benefits, the most expensive condition
for employers was high blood pressure, with an annual cost of $392 per employee
per year, followed by heart disease ($368), mental health problems ($348),
arthritis ($327), and allergies ($271).