Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Mental Health Center

Font Size

Uncertainty Is Powerful Stress Producer

Neurotic People Are More Stressed From Facing Uncertainty Than Facing Negative Feedback
WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

Nov. 21, 2008 -- Another day, another 400-point market sell-off or dismal jobs report or tax-payer-funded corporate bailout.

It goes without saying that we are living in uncertain times, and how you react to this uncertainty may say a lot about your mental health.

In a newly published study, uncertainty was found to be far more stressful for highly neurotic people than dealing with a clearly negative outcome.

The opposite was true for people with low scores for neuroticism. These people exhibited more stress when faced with negative feedback than uncertainty.

"Objectively speaking, uncertainty is better than clearly negative information, but this is not true for people who are highly neurotic," University of Toronto doctoral candidate and study researcher Jacob Hirsh tells WebMD. "These people do not deal with uncertainty very well."

Uncertainty and the Brain

The study, published in the journal Psychological Science, showed what is going on in the brain when we experience uncertainty.

Hirsh and colleague Michael Inzlicht, PhD, conducted personality testing on 41 undergraduate students using a standardized test measuring five major personality traits, including neuroticism.

They then used electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity.

While the EEG was being conducted, the students were asked to perform a fairly simple task on a computer.

The participants were then shown signs indicating positive feedback (a plus sign), negative feedback (a minus sign), or uncertain feedback (a question mark).

All the students exhibited higher neural responses when they got negative feedback than when the feedback was positive.

But neural activity was highest following uncertain feedback in the students with the highest scores for neuroticism.

For students in the middle of the neuroticism spectrum, negative feedback and uncertain feedback elicited similar neural activity.

"The idiom 'the devil you know is better than the devil you don't know' perfectly characterizes the attitudes of highly neurotic people," Hirsh says.

'Fight or Flight' Response

Developmental psychologist Daniel Mroczek, PhD, tells WebMD that he is not surprised by the findings.

"Another way of looking at neuroticism is that it is really a highly developed 'fight or flight' response," he says. "It makes sense that uncertainty would really freak these people out."

Today on WebMD

Differences between feeling depressed or feeling blue.
lunar eclipse
Signs of mania and depression.
man screaming
Causes, symptoms, and therapies.
woman looking into fridge
When food controls you.
Woman standing in grass field barefoot, wind blowi
senior man eating a cake
woman reading medicine warnings
depressed young woman
man with arms on table
man cringing and covering ears

WebMD Special Sections