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    Smartphone Use for Business at Night Not So Smart?

    Late evening use disrupts sleep and may hurt productivity, study suggests

    WebMD News from HealthDay

    By Alan Mozes

    HealthDay Reporter

    FRIDAY, Feb. 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- As smartphones have become the must-have technology for millions of Americans, the opportunity to call, text or email is often just an arm's length away -- day or night.

    But new research cautions that using smartphones to attend to work after hours can actually disrupt sleep and undermine overall productivity, leaving workers tired and unfocused during the day.

    "What we have is a double-whammy effect," said study co-author Russell Johnson. "On the one hand, when people are using their phones to conduct work late into the night then they're less able to detach and disassociate from their job, which makes sleeping more difficult and can lead to mental fatigue.

    "And at the same time, the kind of blue light given off by these devices seems to interfere with the sleep hormone melatonin. So, there is both a psychological and physiological impact on sleep that can make it more difficult to engage the next day at work," added Johnson, an assistant professor at Michigan State University's department of management.

    He and his colleagues reported their findings in the journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    The authors noted that the National Sleep Foundation estimates that six in 10 Americans say that most of the time they are not getting sufficient sleep.

    To explore how smartphones might compound this problem, the authors conducted two series of surveys.

    The first survey tapped into the experiences of 82 mostly male upper-level managers. All were taking weekend classes to earn a Master's in Business Administration (MBA) degree.

    They completed questionnaires at different times of the day over a two-week period, tallying how often smartphones were used to take care of business after 9 p.m. Survey items also addressed sleep quality at night and daytime alertness while at work. Investigators did not collect any information regarding smartphone use at night for strictly social purposes.

    The result: Using smartphones for bedside business was associated with sleeping less. And sleeping less was, in turn, associated with energy "depletion" in the morning and feeling less engaged on the job.

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