Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

This content is selected and controlled by WebMD's editorial staff and is brought to you by The Makers of Excedrin.

Slideshow: Surprising Headache and Migraine Triggers

1. Your Boss

Anything (or anyone) that boosts your stress level can make you more vulnerable to tension headaches or migraines. Doctors don’t know exactly how it happens. Many things may be involved, including certain nerves in the brain that relay pain messages and may be extra sensitive. Changes within the brain itself may also be involved in migraine headaches.

2. Weather

When the temperature changes, it can make a migraine more likely. Whether it's a heat wave or a cold snap, the change can trigger a headache. Sunny, hot days can do that, too. Rain or changes in barometric pressure also may lead to headaches. While you can't change the weather, you can wear sunglasses on a bright day, stay hydrated, and avoid midday sun.

3. Strong Scents

Strong smells, even nice ones, trigger migraines in many people. Why this happens is unclear. The most common offenders are paint, perfume, and certain types of flowers.

4.Hair Accessories

Ouch! How you wear your hair can take a toll on your head. A too-tight ponytail may strain the connective tissue in the scalp, leading to a hairdo headache. Headbands, braids, and tight-fitting hats can do that, too. If this is the cause of your headache, you’ll usually get fast relief if you let your hair down.

5. Exercise

Strenuous activity can sometimes lead to headaches. Examples include jogger’s headache and even a sex headache. These types of headaches are most common in people who are likely to get migraines. Though rare, this type of headache can also be a sign of a very serious problem such as bleeding in the brain. Call 911 if you get a bad headache after doing something that’s physically hard.

6. Poor Posture

Slouching builds up pressure in the head and neck muscles. Do you hunch your shoulders, use a chair with no lower-back support, or stare at a monitor that is too low or too high? If you have frequent tension headaches, these simple lifestyle changes could help.

7. Cheese

A migraine trigger for some people is aged cheese, including blue cheese, cheddar, parmesan, and Swiss. The problem may be a substance called tyramine. The longer a food ages, the more tyramine it has.

8. Red Wine

Tyramine is also found in red wine and other alcoholic drinks. Other ingredients in wine can contribute to headaches as well. Because alcohol boosts blood flow to the brain, the effects may be even more intense. Try sipping sparkling water or another non-alcoholic drink.

9. Cold Cuts

Cold cuts and other processed meats often contain tyramine and food additives such as nitrites, which may trigger headaches in some people. If you think this could be a trigger for you, try taking these foods out of your diet for a while to see if it makes a difference.

10. Skipped Meals

Hunger headaches aren’t always obvious. If you don’t eat, your head could start to ache before you realize you’re hungry. The trouble is likely a dip in blood sugar. But don’t try to cure a hunger headache with a candy bar. Sweets cause blood sugar to spike and then drop even lower.

11. Smoking

Smoking is known to trigger headaches, and not just in the person holding the cigarette. Secondhand smoke contains nicotine, which causes blood vessels in the brain to narrow. Giving up cigarettes or staying away from secondhand smoke helps a lot if you get cluster headaches. These are extremely painful, one-sided headaches that can also cause eye and nose symptoms.


12. Caffeine

If you get a lot of headaches, too much caffeine may be why. In moderation, caffeine often helps. In fact, it’s found in many headache medications. But chain-chugging coffee or sodas can cause headaches. If you want to stop caffeine, ease off gradually. Quitting suddenly can make things worse: Caffeine withdrawal is another headache trigger.

Find Your Triggers

By doing this you may be able to stop headaches before they start. The best strategy is to keep a headache diary. Every day, note the foods you eat, stressful events, weather changes, and physical activity. Whenever you have a headache, jot down the time it starts and stops. This will help you find patterns so you can avoid your triggers.

Manage Stress

Many people find that they’re more prepared to manage migraines or tension headaches by taming stress. You can’t control everything, but you can change how you respond to the things that concern you. Look into classes or read a book on stress management, meditation, or massage. Anything healthy that helps you relax, problem-solve, and recharge is worth a try.

Get Moving

Exercise is a powerful stress reliever. You can do anything you like. Walking is a great choice. When you walk, the swinging motion of your arms tends to relax the muscles in your neck and shoulders. Breaking up those knots gets at the root of some headaches.


Eat Regular Meals

No more hunger headaches! Eating good-for-you meals throughout the day (with smaller portions, so you don’t eat too much) will keep your blood sugar on an even keel. Try to pair a protein with a complex carbohydrate, such as peanut butter on whole-grain bread or a chicken breast with brown rice. Also, sip enough fluids, since dehydration can also give you a headache.

For more surprising headache triggers, go to the next slide.

Physical Therapy

Your physical therapist will show you exercises to strengthen you and work on your flexibility so you can move better. If you get tension headaches, physical therapy will help relax your neck muscles and give you new habits that lead to better posture. 

Medicine's Role

Over-the counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen, aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen are effective against many types of headaches. But using these medicines daily, or nearly every day,  can result in medication overuse headaches or rebound headaches -- headache pain that returns as soon as the pills have worn off. For frequent or severe headaches, ask your doctor what would help.

When to See a Doctor

If you get a new headache that is unusually severe or lasts longer than usual, see a doctor. Tell her if your headache pattern changes, such as if they happen more often or if you have new triggers. Call 911 if you have a severe, sudden headache (out of the blue or after an accident or head injury), or if you also have vision changes, trouble talking, movement problems, confusion, seizure, a fever, or a stiff neck.

TOC All About Headaches

Reviewed by Melinda Ratini, DO, MS on January 20, 2016

Sources: Sources

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information: Disclaimer

© 2016 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Previous Slide Next Slide

From Our Sponsor

Content under this heading is from or created on behalf of the named sponsor. This content is not subject to the WebMD Editorial Policy and is not reviewed by the WebMD Editorial department for accuracy, objectivity or balance.

  • Mild to Moderate

    Find out the triggers and treatments.

  • Tension

    Breathe deep and relax! We've got tips to prevent aches brought on by stress.

  • Cluster

    Manage your pain and learn how to avoid triggers.

  • Migraine

    Learn how to stop it and prevent another attack.