Stem Cell Pressure Builds on Bush
July 18, 2001 (Washington) -- As Congress continued hearings on
stem cell research, advocates of controversial studies using cells taken from
human embryos gained the support of both a National Institutes of Health report
and a prominent conservative Republican on Wednesday.
Later this month, President Bush is supposed to announce his
decision on federal funding for studies of embryonic stem cells. The Clinton
administration had given the research the green light, but Bush has suspended
that decision for a full review of the cutting-edge issue.
The NIH report released Wednesday emphasized the merit of
embryonic and less contentious adult stem cell research. "Both of these
cell types hold enormous promise," the report stated. Using both cell
types, scientists have been able to repair or replace damaged cells and tissues
in animal studies, according to the report.
Stem cells are "blank" cells that have the power to
transform themselves into virtually any type of cell in the body. Scientists
are hoping to harness this ability to battle a host of serious human
"It is impossible to predict which stem cells ... will best
meet the needs of basic research and clinical applications," the NIH report
said. "The answers clearly lie in conducting more research."
Meanwhile, Sen. Bill Frist (R-Tenn.) testified at a Senate
hearing that he supported embryonic research under strict ethical guidelines.
Frist, a heart surgeon and the Senate's only doctor, said, "research using
the more versatile embryonic stem cells has greater potential than research
limited to adult stem cells."
Frist joins a growing list of conservatives, including Sen.
Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) and Nancy Reagan, who back federal funding.
According to the NIH, there are already about 30 embryonic stem
cell "lines," which means that research stem cells have come from about
30 different human embryos.
Frist said that scientists should come together to decide on an
upper limit of cell lines that could receive federal funding. "You don't
need unlimited cell lines," he said. Frist also emphasized that taxpayer
dollars should not be spent for the actual extraction of stem cells from
embryos, the act that results in their destruction.
The early-stage human embryos in question are frozen and
"left over" from in vitro fertilization efforts. They would otherwise
But the Catholic Church and many pro-life advocates are morally
opposed to any government involvement in embryonic stem cell research,
contending that the research requires destroying human life. Sen. Sam Brownback
(R- Kan.) said, "We simply do not need to do any research which relies on
the destruction of human beings."
By contrast, Sen. Gordon Smith (R-Ore.) said that he believes
that life begins in the mother's womb. But Catholic leaders insist that it
commences upon the union of the male sperm and female egg.