What's the Greatest Medical Advance?
Medical Journal BMJ Invites You to Choose
In the world of medicine, "breakthrough" is not a word taken
lightly. But the prestigious British medical journal BMJ soon plans to
name what it considers the greatest medical breakthrough since 1840 -- the year
the journal was launched.
Last year, BMJ invited readers to submit nominations for the honor.
Now in contention are 15 medical advances, ranging from anesthesia to vaccines,
that over the decades have saved millions of lives and immeasurable human
These breakthroughs were culled from more than 100 nominations from
BMJ readers -- mostly physicians and scientists -- based on the
ability of each medical development to transform lives around the world.
Among the suggested breakthroughs that didn't make the cut? Condoms, Viagra,
soap, exercise, and the mobile phone.
For the 15 advances that made the short list, BMJ has chosen 15
leading doctors and scientists to champion each milestone in contention for top
honor. These are respected medical experts, including the creator of the modern
controlbirth control pill, a
descendent of the scientist who helped developed anesthesia, and the author of
a book on the history of penicillin.
Beginning Friday, Jan. 5, subscribers and the general public can log onto
the web site, read arguments for all 15 advances, and vote for their personal
favorite. The deadline for voting is Sunday, Jan. 14, and the winning
breakthrough will be announced Jan. 18 on the site.
The Nominations, Please
Here is a sneak peek and description of the 15 advances that made the
shortlist, to give you a running start:
Anesthesia: In 1846, a Boston dentist used ether during
surgery, putting an end to much of the pain of undergoing surgery. Since then,
general anesthesia has become a mainstay in operations.
Antibiotics: Alexander Fleming, a British bacteriologist,
discovered penicillin in 1928 by accident when he sloppily left a Petri dish of
bacteria uncleaned in his lab. He found a substance (later named penicillin)
growing on it that killed the bugs, and thus was the beginning of modern-day
antibiotics. Fleming shared the Nobel Prize in 1945 for the discovery.
Chlorpromazine: Discovered in 1952, chlorpromazine
(Thorazine) was the first antipsychotic medication. It was used to treat
psychotic disorders and their symptoms, such as hallucinations, hostility, and
delusions. Its development brought new understanding of the biological basis
for mental illness, and some say it provided more humane management.
Computers. From medical records to insurance, to making
sure your new medication isn't going to clash with an existing one, computers
are now viewed by some doctors as being as important as their stethoscopes.
They've been in use in medicine since the early 1960s. Doctors can access
information on new drugs and interactions, new medical studies, clinical
trials, or keep patient records stored at their fingertips -- so they'll know
in an instant if you really have kept the weight off.
DNA structure. Scientists James Watson and Francis Crick
presented the structure of the DNA helix, the molecule responsible for carrying
genetic information from one generation to the next, in 1953. It earned them
the Nobel Prize in 1962.
Evidence-based medicine. As the name suggests,
evidence-based medicine involves making use of the current best evidence (such
as research), a patient's values, and a doctor's clinical experience to make
decisions about patient care. The term was coined in the early '90s and the
concept has been evolving ever since.