Gum Problem Basics: Sore, Swollen, and Bleeding Gums
Gums and Canker Sores
Common culprits behind painful gums are canker sores, or mouthulcers. These painful sores can develop anywhere inside the mouth, including on the gums, and often have a whitish center with red edges. You may have one canker sore at a time, making only one area on your gums sore, or you may have multiple sores at the same time throughout your mouth.
While researchers don't know what causes canker sores, there may be bacterial or viral involvement. People with certain autoimmune diseases may also be more likely to have gum problems caused by canker sores. Canker sores often come back over time and are not contagious.
Gums and Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy can have a number of unpleasant side effects, including painful, swollen, and bleeding gums. Many people undergoing treatment for cancer contend with stomatitis, which causes the development of painful sores and ulcers on the gums and throughout the mouth.
Gums and Tobacco Products
Using cigarettes and other tobacco products can be extremely damaging to your gums. People who smoke are far more likely to develop gum disease. You may find that your smoking habit gives you a number of gum problems, from sensitive gums that bleed to painful sores.
Gums and Hormones
Some women find they have gum problems during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. The rise in hormones during puberty can heighten blood flow to the gums, making them red, swollen, and sensitive. For women with menstrual gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen, and more likely to bleed shortly before each menstrual period. These problems typically subside after the period begins. Pregnancy gingivitis typically starts in the second or third month of pregnancy and continues through the eighth month, causing sore, swollen, and bleeding gums. The use of oral birth control products may cause similar gum problems. Though uncommon, some women going through menopause may find that their gums become extremely dry and therefore sore and likely to bleed.
8 Tips to Prevent Sore, Swollen, and Bleeding Gums
1. Brush your teeth at least twice each day. Make sure you follow proper brushing technique. If you're not sure what to do, ask your dentist or dental hygienist for a quick lesson at your next appointment.