Hip Osteoarthritis (Degenerative Arthritis of the Hip)
What Is Osteoarthritis?
Arthritis means "joint inflammation." It causes pain and swelling in the body's joints, such as the knees or hips. There are many types of arthritis, but osteoarthritis is the most common. Also known as degenerative joint disease or age-related arthritis, osteoarthritis is more likely to develop as people get older.
Osteoarthritis occurs when inflammation and injury to a joint cause a breaking down of cartilage tissue. In turn, that breakdown causes pain, swelling, and deformity. Cartilage is a firm, rubbery material that covers the ends of bones in normal joints. It is primarily made up of water and proteins. The primary function of cartilage is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as a "shock absorber." The shock-absorbing quality of normal cartilage comes from its ability to change shape when compressed. It can do this because of its high water content. Although cartilage may undergo some repair when damaged, the body does not grow new cartilage after it is injured.
The pain of arthritis makes it tough for many people to get a good night’s sleep. Worse yet, tossing and turning at night can actually increase the perception of pain.
“There’s a reciprocal relationship between pain and poor sleep. The poorer people sleep, the more pain they tend to be in,” says Kevin Fontaine, PhD, assistant professor of rheumatology at Johns Hopkins University. “If people with arthritis can improve the quality of their sleep, they can usually reduce their day-to-day pain.”
Primary: More generalized osteoarthritis that affects the fingers, thumbs, spine, hips, and knees
Secondary: Osteoarthritis that occurs after injury or inflammation in a joint, or as a result of another condition such as hemochromatosis
How Does Osteoarthritis Affect the Hip Joint?
Patients who have osteoarthritis of the hip sometimes have problems walking. Diagnosis can be difficult at first. That's because pain can appear in different locations, including the groin, thigh, buttocks, or knee. The pain can be stabbing and sharp or it can be a dull ache, and the hip is often stiff.
In addition, osteoarthritis can sometimes be caused by other factors:
The joints may not have formed properly.
There may be genetic (inherited) defects in the cartilage.
The person may be putting extra stress on his or her joints, either by being overweight or through activities that involve the hip.
What Are the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis of the Hip?
If you have any of the following symptoms of hip osteoarthritis, talk to your doctor:
Joint stiffness that occurs as you are getting out of bed
Joint stiffness after you sit for a long time
Any pain, swelling, or tenderness in the hip joint
A sound or feeling ("crunching") of bone rubbing against bone
Inability to move the hip to perform routine activities such as putting on your socks
How Is Osteoarthritis of the Hip Diagnosed?
There is no single test for diagnosing osteoarthritis. Your doctor will take your medical history and perform a physical examination. This will include a check of how your hip is functioning. Your doctor may also order X-rays or other tests, including blood tests.