Arthritis Drug Overview
There are dozens of medications available over-the-counter and by prescription to treat the various forms of arthritis. Your doctor can help you choose what drugs are best for your particular disease.
Topical Pain Relievers
These topical drugs can help provide pain relief for people with arthritis that is in just a few joints, such as a hand, or for people whose pain isn't severe.
Anti-inflammatory Painkillers (NSAIDs)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs are available both over-the-counter and by prescription. Almost everyone with arthritis has taken or is taking one of these drugs. Prescription doses can help curb joint inflammation.
Other Pain-Relieving Arthritis Drugs
Acetaminophen is available over-the-counter and is a commonly used pain reliever for people with arthritis. Narcotic pain relievers are available by prescription only and may be used to help with more severe pain, but they don't relieve joint inflammation. Often they are combined with acetaminophen or an NSAID to enhance their effects. Narcotic drugs can be habit-forming, and they can cause constipation, urinary problems, and sedation.
Your doctor may recommend the use of antidepressants to help treat chronic pain whether you have depression or not. It is not exactly clear how antidepressants help curb pain, but an antidepressant effect on brain chemicals is believed to play a role. Side effects may range from drowsiness to dry mouth and blurred vision. Rarely, these drugs can lead to mood changes or suicidal thoughts.
Arthritis and Steroids
Steroids are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs that can treat many forms of arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis, plus lupus and other forms of inflammation such as vasculitis.
Although effective, steroids can have many side effects, especially when taken as a pill and used long term. Often, doctors try to avoid these problems by injecting the steroid into the affected joint or trying other medications in combination to keep the dose of steroids as low as possible.
There are several versions of hyaluronan injections, also called viscosupplementation, that are used to treat osteoarthritis of the knee. They are injected directly into the joint. Some studies have shown some benefit for reducing pain for periods of up to six months, but others have shown more limited results.
Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDs)
These drugs are often able to alter the course of some forms of inflammatory arthritis -- diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, or ankylosing spondylitis -- that can destroy the joints. Often these drugs are the first ones used for these diseases.
DMARDs work by interfering with or suppressing the immune system that attacks the joints in people with certain forms of inflammatory arthritis. Aggressive treatment of arthritis often involves using one or more DMARD.
Although effective, DMARDs have a higher risk of serious side effects. It also often takes weeks for you to notice the benefits of taking a DMARD. Therefore, they are often combined with a faster working drug such as an NSAID, another painkiller, or steroids to help relieve some arthritis symptoms.