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    5 Lifestyle Steps for Better Bone Health

    Maximize bone health and reduce the effects of osteoporosis with these simple steps.
    WebMD Feature

    If your doctor says you have thinning bones -- osteopenia or osteoporosis-- it's critical to take steps to slow the progression of this disease.

    Calcium, exercise, no smoking, no excess drinking, bone density tests -- all these are necessary, says Kathryn Diemer, MD, professor of medicine and osteoporosis specialist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

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    "These are basic things that all women should do," Diemer tells WebMD. But they’re especially important for women with low bone density. While you can never regain the bone density you had in your youth, you can help prevent rapidly thinning bones, even after your diagnosis.

    Here’s a breakdown of five lifestyle steps to help you on the road to better bone health.

    Bone Health Step 1: Calcium and Vitamin D

    Calcium builds strong bones, but vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. That's why postmenopausal women need 1,200 milligrams calcium and at least 400 IU to 600 IU vitamin D daily for better bone health.

    "Any patient being treated for osteoporosis should have both calcium and vitamin D levels checked in blood tests," says Diemer.

    Most American women get less than 500 milligrams of calcium in their daily diet. "Sun exposure helps produce vitamin D, but as we get older, our skin is not as efficient at making vitamin D. Also, if we're careful to use sunscreen, we're at risk of having low vitamin D level."

    Here are ways to give your body a boost of both calcium and vitamin D:

    Calcium in food: We know that dairy has calcium, but other foods do, too.

    • Low-fat milk or soy milk (8 ounces): 300 milligrams calcium
    • Cottage cheese (16 ounces): 300 milligrams calcium
    • Low-fat yogurt (8 ounces): 250-400 milligrams calcium
    • Canned salmon (3 ounces): 180 milligrams calcium
    • Calcium-fortified orange juice (6 ounces): 200 milligrams-260 milligrams calcium
    • Cooked spinach, turnip greens, collard greens (1/2 cup): 100 milligrams calcium
    • Cooked broccoli (1/2 cup) 40 milligrams calcium

    A calcium supplement may be necessary to make sure that you're getting enough, says Diemer.

    Calcium supplements: All the calcium bottles on store shelves can be confusing. Basically, there are two types of calcium -- calcium carbonate and calcium citrate -- that can be purchased over the counter.

    • Calcium carbonate must be taken with food for the body to absorb it. Many women have side effects from calcium carbonate -- gastrointestinal upset, gassiness, and constipation, Diemer tells WebMD. If you take calcium carbonate with magnesium, however, you won't likely have the constipation. "It acts just like Milk of Magnesia and seems to help move things through."
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