When most of us think of the "brittle bone disease" known as osteoporosis, we picture a frail older woman with a broken hip or stooped shoulders. But you can't tell if someone has osteoporosis just by looking at them. Doctors need to review your personal and family history, your habits, as well as a bone density test to find your personal risk.
"It could be an elderly lady, a man, or a younger woman who is fine, but is 5 feet tall and weighs 93 pounds," says Ethel S. Siris, MD, of Columbia University Medical Center in New York.
Can I get too much vitamin D?
Too much of any good thing is a bad thing. Too much vitamin D can cause an abnormally high bloodcalcium level, which could result in nausea, constipation, confusion, abnormal heart rhythm, and even kidney stones.
It's nearly impossible to get too much vitamin D from sunlight or from foods (unless you take way too much cod liver oil). Nearly all vitamin D overdoses come from supplements.
The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board's old 1997 recommendations...
"When an older woman or man has a fracture, we must see if they have low bone mass or osteoporosis," says Siris. This is the biggest red-flag warning that more fractures can follow.
When Do You Need a Bone Density Test?
A bone density test can diagnose osteoporosis before a broken bone occurs. The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends this X-ray for:
All women 65 and older
Younger women who have risk factors for osteoporosis
Men 70 and older
Men 50-69 with risk factors for osteoporosis
Some doctors use the FRAX formula (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) to estimate your chance of breaking a bone within the next 10 years. It adds up past fractures, gender, smoking, alcohol use, and sometimes bone density test results in the hip, as well as other factors.