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Types of Osteoporosis

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Types of Osteoporosis in Children

There are two kinds of osteoporosis in children: secondary and idiopathic.

Secondary juvenile osteoporosis refers to osteoporosis that develops as a result of another condition. This is by far the most common kind of osteoporosis in children. Some of the diseases that can lead to osteoporosis in children include:

  • anorexia nervosa
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • cystic fibrosis
  • diabetes
  • homocystinuria, a genetic metabolic disorder
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • hyperthyroidism
  • juvenile arthritis
  • kidney disease
  • leukemia
  • malabsorption syndrome
  • osteogenesis imperfecta, sometimes called brittle bone disease

Some osteoporosis in children is a direct result of disease itself. With rheumatoid arthritis, for example, children may have lower than expected bone mass, especially near arthritic joints. Certain drugs can also lead to juvenile osteoporosis. These can include chemotherapy for cancer, anticonvulsants for seizures, or steroids for arthritis. If your child has one of these conditions, ask your child's health care provider about testing and monitoring bone density.

Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis means that there is no known cause of the disease. This type of juvenile osteoporosis is rare. It develops most often just before the onset of puberty. Although most of the bone density may return during puberty, children with juvenile osteoporosis usually have lower peak bone mass as adults.

No matter what the cause, juvenile osteoporosis is a very serious condition. You build about 90% of your bone mass by the time you're 18 to 20. Losing bone mass during prime bone-building years can put a child at serious risk for long-term complications such as fractures.

What Can I Do to Prevent Osteoporosis?

Here are some things you can do to build bone now and help prevent osteoporosis later:

  • Do weight-bearing exercise. Just like your muscles, your bones need to be worked regularly to stay strong. Studies show that young women who participate in athletics have the highest bone density. They also show that postmenopausal women who take part in regular exercise can prevent or reverse bone loss by almost 1% a year.
  • Eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D. Adults (men and women) under 50, need 1,000 mg (milligrams) of calcium each day. All women over age 50 should get 1,200 mg of calcium daily. Men from age 51 to 70 should get 1,000 mg of calcium a day and 1,200 mg after they reach 70. Men and women under the age of 70 need 600 international units (IU) of vitamin D daily. That increases to 800 IU of vitamin D after the age of 70. Experts feel that it is best to get your calcium and vitamin D from your diet. Good natural sources of these nutrients include milk, yogurt, cheese, dark green leafy vegetables, and fortified cereals and juices. Three and a half ounces of cooked salmon contains 90% of your daily dose of Vitamin D. If you can't get enough calcium and Vitamin D in your diet, talk to your health care provider.
  • Don't smoke. The more you smoke and the longer you smoke, the greater risk you have of fracture in old age. Quitting smoking appears to lower this risk over time.

WebMD Medical Reference

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