Chemotherapy Glossary: What Is My Cancer Doctor Talking About?
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An estimated 21,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer each year. If you're one of them, you might be confused by the many different medical terms your doctor uses to describe your disease and treatments.
This glossary is an alphabetical guide to help you through the process of chemotherapy. It covers many of the terms you'll need to know as you complete your cancer treatment.
Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States in 2013:
New cases: 22,240.
Several malignancies arise from the ovary. Epithelial carcinoma of the ovary is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and the fifth most frequent cause of cancer death in women, with 50% of all cases occurring in women older than 65 years. Approximately 5% to 10% of ovarian cancers are familial, and three distinct hereditary...
Anorexia: Loss of appetite, which can occur as a result of chemotherapy treatment. Anorexia often leads to weight loss.
Anticipatory nausea: Nausea that occurs before chemotherapy treatment. People who have received chemotherapy in the past may experience nausea and vomiting before their treatment begins because they expect these symptoms to occur.
Biomarker: A protein or other substance that can be measured in the blood to determine whether a disease such as ovarian cancer is present. Tracking biomarkers can determine how well a person is responding to chemotherapy. This is also known as a tumor marker.
Blood cell count: A test (also called a complete blood count, or CBC) that is used to determine the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in a blood sample. Chemotherapy can damage the bone marrow where these blood cells are produced, resulting in lower-than-normal blood counts.
CA125: A protein made by cells in the body that is found in higher-than-normal amounts in the blood of women with ovarian cancer. A test that detects the level of this protein in a blood sample helps doctors determine whether chemotherapy is effectively killing cancer cells. This tumor marker can also be elevated in other cancers and other non-cancer related conditions.