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    Ovarian Cancer Health Center

    Medical Reference Related to Ovarian Cancer

    1. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment

      Overall, approximately 80% of patients diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancer will relapse after first-line platinum-based and taxane-based chemotherapy and may benefit from subsequent therapies. Early detection of persistent disease by second-look laparotomies after completing first-line treatment is no longer practiced; when the outcomes in the 50% of institutions practicing such procedures were informally compared with the outcomes in those institutions not using such procedures, additional lack of support for them grew, as was found in the case for patients entered in GOG-0158.[1] However, the practice of close follow-up of patients completing treatment by serial CA 125s at intervals of 1 to 3 months was nearly universally adopted. In patients who are in clinical complete remission, increases in CA 125 from their initial treatment represent the most common method to detect disease that will eventually relapse clinically. A trial by the Medical Research

    2. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

      DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage III dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are recommended with removal of as much gross tumor as can be done safely without resection of portions of the urinary tract or large segments of the small or large bowel. Patients who want to preserve fertility may be treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy if chemotherapy is to be employed.[1,2,3,4,5] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) can cure the majority of such patients. In a report of results from two Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trials, 19 of 20 patients with incompletely resected tumors who were treated with BEP or cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin (PVB) were

    3. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

      Treatment depends on whether the tumor is a dysgerminoma or another type of ovarian germ cell tumor. Treatment of dysgerminoma may be:Chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.Treatment of other ovarian germ cell tumors may include the following: Chemotherapy.Surgery with or without chemotherapy.A clinical trial of high-dose chemotherapy followed by bone marrow transplant.A clinical trial of a new treatment.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent ovarian germ cell tumor. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

    4. Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Cellular Classification of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

      The following histologic subtypes have been described.[1,2]Dysgerminoma.Other germ cell tumors: Endodermal sinus tumor (rare subtypes are hepatoid and intestinal).[1]Embryonal carcinoma.Polyembryoma.Choriocarcinoma.Teratoma: Immature.Mature: Solid.Cystic: Dermoid cyst (mature cystic teratoma).Dermoid cyst with malignant transformation.Monodermal and highly specialized: Struma ovarii.Carcinoid.Struma ovarii and carcinoid.Others (e.g., malignant neuroectodermal and ependymoma).Mixed forms.References: Gershenson DM: Update on malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. Cancer 71 (4 Suppl): 1581-90, 1993. Serov SF, Scully RE, Robin IH: International Histologic Classification of Tumours: No. 9. Histological Typing of Ovarian Tumours. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1973.

    5. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    6. Oophorectomy - Stage Information for Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

      Definitions: FIGOThe Féderation Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) have designated staging to define ovarian low malignant potential tumors; the FIGO system is most commonly used.[1,2]Table 1. Carcinoma of the OvaryaStagea Adapted from FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology.[1]b In order to evaluate the impact on prognosis of the different criteria for allotting cases to stage Ic or IIc, it would be of value to know if rupture of the capsule was spontaneous, or caused by the surgeon; and if the source of malignant cells detected was peritoneal washings, or ascites.IGrowth limited to the ovaries.IaGrowth limited to one ovary; no ascites present containing malignant cells. No tumor on the external surface; capsule intact.IbGrowth limited to both ovaries; no ascites present containing malignant cells. No tumor on the external surfaces; capsules intact.IcbTumor either stage Ia or Ib, but with tumor on surface of one

    7. Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    8. Oophorectomy - Stage Information for Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

      In the absence of obvious metastatic disease, accurate staging of germ cell tumors of the ovary requires laparotomy with careful examination of the following:Entire diaphragm.Both paracolic gutters.Pelvic nodes on the side of the ovarian tumor.The para-aortic lymph nodes.The omentum.The contralateral ovary should be carefully examined and biopsied if necessary. Ascitic fluid should be examined cytologically. If ascites is not present, it is important to obtain peritoneal washings before the tumor is manipulated. In patients with dysgerminoma, lymphangiography or computed tomography is indicated if the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were not carefully examined at the time of surgery. Although not required for formal staging, it is desirable to obtain serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as soon as the diagnosis is established since persistence of these markers in the serum after surgery indicates unresected tumor.Definitions: FIGOThe

    9. Oophorectomy - About This PDQ Summary

      About PDQPhysician Data Query (PDQ) is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish.PDQ is a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH is the federal government's center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature. They are not policy statements of the NCI or the NIH.Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary has current

    10. Oophorectomy - Get More Information From NCI

      Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

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