Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
In the absence of obvious metastatic disease, accurate staging of germ cell tumors of the ovary requires laparotomy with careful examination of the following:Entire diaphragm.Both paracolic gutters.Pelvic nodes on the side of the ovarian tumor.The para-aortic lymph nodes.The omentum.The contralateral ovary should be carefully examined and biopsied if necessary. Ascitic fluid should be examined cytologically. If ascites is not present, it is important to obtain peritoneal washings before the tumor is manipulated. In patients with dysgerminoma, lymphangiography or computed tomography is indicated if the pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes were not carefully examined at the time of surgery. Although not required for formal staging, it is desirable to obtain serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as soon as the diagnosis is established since persistence of these markers in the serum after surgery indicates unresected tumor.Definitions: FIGOThe
Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - What is prevention?
WebMD discusses methods of preventing ovarian cancer.
Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of ovarian low-malignant potential tumors. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a
Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Ovarian Cancer Prevention
Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors may increase the risk of ovarian cancer:Family history of ovarian cancerA woman whose mother or sister had ovarian cancer has an increased risk of ovarian cancer. A woman with two or more relatives with ovarian cancer also has an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Inherited riskThe risk of ovarian cancer is increased in women who have inherited certain changes in the following genes:BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.Genes that are linked to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch syndrome).Hormone replacement
Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage IV dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is recommended with removal of as much gross tumor in the abdomen and pelvis as can be done safely without resection of portions of the urinary tract or large segments of small or large bowel, although unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered in patients who wish to preserve fertility.[1,2] Chemotherapy with bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) can cure the majority of such patients. Stage IV dysgerminoma is not treated with radiation therapy, but rather with chemotherapy, preferably with three to four courses of cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy such as BEP. A second-look operation following treatment is rarely beneficial. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and
Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Advanced-Stage Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors
Patients with advanced disease should undergo a total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, node sampling, and aggressive cytoreductive surgery. Patients with stage III or IV disease with no gross residual tumor have had a 100% survival rate in some series regardless of the follow-up duration.[1,2] The 7-year survival rate of patients with gross residual disease was only 69% in a large series  and appears to be inversely proportional to the length of follow-up.For patients with more advanced-stage disease and microscopic or gross residual disease, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are not indicated. Scant evidence exists that postoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy alters the course of this disease in any beneficial way.[1,3,4,5,6] In a study of 364 patients without residual tumor, adjuvant therapy had no effect on disease-free or corrected survival when stratified for disease stage. Patients without residual tumor who received no adjuvant
Ovarian Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - General Information About Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the ovaries.The ovaries are a pair of organs in the female reproductive system. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). Each ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs and female hormones (chemicals that control the way certain cells or organs function).Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about ovarian cancer:Ovarian Cancer PreventionGenetics of Breast and Ovarian CancerOvarian Epithelial Cancer TreatmentOvarian Germ Cell Tumors TreatmentOvarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors TreatmentIn the United States, ovarian cancer is the
Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors
DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage III dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy are recommended with removal of as much gross tumor as can be done safely without resection of portions of the urinary tract or large segments of the small or large bowel. Patients who want to preserve fertility may be treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy if chemotherapy is to be employed.[1,2,3,4,5] (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and Reproductive Issues for more information on fertility.)Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) can cure the majority of such patients. In a report of results from two Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trials, 19 of 20 patients with incompletely resected tumors who were treated with BEP or cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin (PVB) were
Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000062968-nci-header
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment