PathogenesisThe pathogenesis of ovarian carcinoma remains unclear. Several theories have been proposed to explain the epidemiology of ovarian cancer including the theory of incessant ovulation,[1,2] gonadotropin stimulation, excess androgenic stimulation, and inflammation. Associated risk factors for ovarian cancer support some or all of these hypotheses. Oral contraceptive use is consistently associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer and may operate through preventing the trauma from repeated ovulation by lowering exposure to gonadotropins. No one theory, however, explains all the associated risk factors.Protective Factors Factors associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer include: (1) using oral contraceptives, (2) having and breastfeeding children, (3) having a bilateral tubal ligation or hysterectomy, and (4) having a prophylactic oophorectomy.Oral contraceptives Multiple studies have consistently demonstrated a decrease in
The following is a list of ovarian epithelial cancer histologic classifications. Serous cystomas: Serous benign cystadenomas.Serous cystadenomas with proliferating activity of the epithelial cells and nuclear abnormalities but with no infiltrative destructive growth (low potential or borderline malignancy).Serous cystadenocarcinomas.Mucinous cystomas: Mucinous benign cystadenomas.Mucinous cystadenomas with proliferating activity of the epithelial cells and nuclear abnormalities but with no infiltrative destructive growth (low potential or borderline malignancy).Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas.Endometrioid tumors (similar to adenocarcinomas in the endometrium): Endometrioid benign cysts.Endometrioid tumors with proliferating activity of the epithelial cells and nuclear abnormalities but with no infiltrative destructive growth (low malignant potential or borderline malignancy).Endometrioid adenocarcinomas.Clear cell (mesonephroid) tumors: Benign clear cell tumors.Clear cell tumors with
Related Summaries Note: Other PDQ summaries containing information related to ovarian epithelial cancer include the following: Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Ovarian Cancer Screening Ovarian Cancer Prevention Unusual Cancers of Childhood Statistics Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States in 2010:[ 1 ] New cases: 21,880. Deaths: 13,850. Note: Some ...
DysgerminomasStandard treatment options:Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant chemotherapy.For patients with stage IV dysgerminoma, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is recommended with removal of as much gross tumor in the abdomen and pelvis as can be done safely without resection of portions of the urinary tract or large segments of small or large bowel, although unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered in patients who wish to preserve fertility.[1,2] Chemotherapy with bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) can cure the majority of such patients. Stage IV dysgerminoma is not treated with radiation therapy, but rather with chemotherapy, preferably with three to four courses of cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy such as BEP. A second-look operation following treatment is rarely beneficial. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Sexuality and
Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about ovarian cancer prevention. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.
For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:What You Need to Know About™ CancerUnderstanding Cancer Series: CancerCancer StagingChemotherapy and You: Support for People With CancerRadiation Therapy and You: Support for People With CancerCoping with Cancer: Supportive and Palliative CareQuestions to Ask Your Doctor About CancerCancer LibraryInformation For Survivors/Caregivers/Advocates
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to talk about the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of ovarian screening tests include the following: Finding ovarian cancer may not improve health or help a woman live longer.Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have advanced ovarian cancer or if it has already spread to other places in your body. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer may have serious side effects.False-negative test results can occur.Screening test results may appear to be normal