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Ovarian Cancer Health Center

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Evidence of Benefit

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    Height, weight, and dietary factors

    Obesity is associated with an increased mortality from ovarian cancer.[36] In cohort studies, height and body mass index (BMI),[37,38] including high BMI during adolescence,[38] were associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting a role for diet and nutrition during the adolescent period.

    Associations with specific dietary factors and ovarian cancer are not consistent among observational studies.[39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47]

    References:

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    7. The reduction in risk of ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. N Engl J Med 316 (11): 650-5, 1987.
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    10. Narod SA, Sun P, Risch HA, et al.: Ovarian cancer, oral contraceptives, and BRCA mutations. N Engl J Med 345 (23): 1706-7, 2001.
    11. Modan B, Hartge P, Hirsh-Yechezkel G, et al.: Parity, oral contraceptives, and the risk of ovarian cancer among carriers and noncarriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 345 (4): 235-40, 2001.
    12. Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, Colditz GA, et al.: Tubal ligation, hysterectomy, and risk of ovarian cancer. A prospective study. JAMA 270 (23): 2813-8, 1993.
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    14. Klaren HM, van't Veer LJ, van Leeuwen FE, et al.: Potential for bias in studies on efficacy of prophylactic surgery for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation. J Natl Cancer Inst 95 (13): 941-7, 2003.
    15. Tobacman JK, Greene MH, Tucker MA, et al.: Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in ovarian-cancer-prone families. Lancet 2 (8302): 795-7, 1982.
    16. Piver MS, Jishi MF, Tsukada Y, et al.: Primary peritoneal carcinoma after prophylactic oophorectomy in women with a family history of ovarian cancer. A report of the Gilda Radner Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry. Cancer 71 (9): 2751-5, 1993.
    17. Casey MJ, Synder C, Bewtra C, et al.: Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in women of hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome kindreds associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Gynecol Oncol 97 (2): 457-67, 2005.
    18. Gallicchio L, Whiteman MK, Tomic D, et al.: Type of menopause, patterns of hormone therapy use, and hot flashes. Fertil Steril 85 (5): 1432-40, 2006.
    19. Madalinska JB, van Beurden M, Bleiker EM, et al.: The impact of hormone replacement therapy on menopausal symptoms in younger high-risk women after prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. J Clin Oncol 24 (22): 3576-82, 2006.
    20. Atsma F, Bartelink ML, Grobbee DE, et al.: Postmenopausal status and early menopause as independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Menopause 13 (2): 265-79, 2006 Mar-Apr.
    21. van Der Voort DJ, van Der Weijer PH, Barentsen R: Early menopause: increased fracture risk at older age. Osteoporos Int 14 (6): 525-30, 2003.
    22. Garg PP, Kerlikowske K, Subak L, et al.: Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 92 (3): 472-9, 1998.
    23. Lacey JV Jr, Mink PJ, Lubin JH, et al.: Menopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of ovarian cancer. JAMA 288 (3): 334-41, 2002.
    24. Mills PK, Riordan DG, Cress RD, et al.: Hormone replacement therapy and invasive and borderline epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cancer Detect Prev 29 (2): 124-32, 2005.
    25. Moorman PG, Schildkraut JM, Calingaert B, et al.: Menopausal hormones and risk of ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193 (1): 76-82, 2005.
    26. Rodriguez C, Patel AV, Calle EE, et al.: Estrogen replacement therapy and ovarian cancer mortality in a large prospective study of US women. JAMA 285 (11): 1460-5, 2001.
    27. Anderson GL, Judd HL, Kaunitz AM, et al.: Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial. JAMA 290 (13): 1739-48, 2003.
    28. Whittemore AS, Harris R, Itnyre J: Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case-control studies. II. Invasive epithelial ovarian cancers in white women. Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Am J Epidemiol 136 (10): 1184-203, 1992.
    29. Parazzini F, Negri E, La Vecchia C, et al.: Treatment for infertility and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Hum Reprod 12 (10): 2159-61, 1997.
    30. Mosgaard BJ, Lidegaard O, Kjaer SK, et al.: Ovarian stimulation and borderline ovarian tumors: a case-control study. Fertil Steril 70 (6): 1049-55, 1998.
    31. Rossing MA, Daling JR, Weiss NS, et al.: Ovarian tumors in a cohort of infertile women. N Engl J Med 331 (12): 771-6, 1994.
    32. Dor J, Lerner-Geva L, Rabinovici J, et al.: Cancer incidence in a cohort of infertile women who underwent in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril 77 (2): 324-7, 2002.
    33. Doyle P, Maconochie N, Beral V, et al.: Cancer incidence following treatment for infertility at a clinic in the UK. Hum Reprod 17 (8): 2209-13, 2002.
    34. Venn A, Watson L, Bruinsma F, et al.: Risk of cancer after use of fertility drugs with in-vitro fertilisation. Lancet 354 (9190): 1586-90, 1999.
    35. Gertig DM, Hunter DJ, Cramer DW, et al.: Prospective study of talc use and ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (3): 249-52, 2000.
    36. Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, et al.: Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 348 (17): 1625-38, 2003.
    37. Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA: Height, weight, weight change, and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer. Am J Epidemiol 157 (5): 424-33, 2003.
    38. Engeland A, Tretli S, Bjørge T: Height, body mass index, and ovarian cancer: a follow-up of 1.1 million Norwegian women. J Natl Cancer Inst 95 (16): 1244-8, 2003.
    39. Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al.: A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer. Cancer Causes Control 17 (3): 273-85, 2006.
    40. Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al.: Dairy products and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (2): 364-72, 2006.
    41. Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al.: Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies. Br J Cancer 94 (5): 757-62, 2006.
    42. Mommers M, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, et al.: Consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of ovarian carcinoma. Cancer 104 (7): 1512-9, 2005.
    43. Larsson SC, Holmberg L, Wolk A: Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to ovarian cancer incidence: the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Br J Cancer 90 (11): 2167-70, 2004.
    44. Kushi LH, Mink PJ, Folsom AR, et al.: Prospective study of diet and ovarian cancer. Am J Epidemiol 149 (1): 21-31, 1999.
    45. Fairfield KM, Hankinson SE, Rosner BA, et al.: Risk of ovarian carcinoma and consumption of vitamins A, C, and E and specific carotenoids: a prospective analysis. Cancer 92 (9): 2318-26, 2001.
    46. Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Norkus EP, et al.: Prospective study of serum micronutrients and ovarian cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (1): 32-7, 1996.
    47. Garland M, Morris JS, Stampfer MJ, et al.: Prospective study of toenail selenium levels and cancer among women. J Natl Cancer Inst 87 (7): 497-505, 1995.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: February 25, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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