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Self-reported measures of pain: Doctors may ask children to rate their pain on a scale of 1-10 or show pictures that reflect different emotions and ask them which best illustrates how they are feeling.
Behavioral measures of pain: Doctors will evaluate the child's motor responses, facial expressions, crying and behavior (for example, sleep-wake patterns).
Physiologic measures of pain: Doctors measure blood pressure and pulse changes, as well as take note of palm sweating.
Medications Used to Treat Pain in Children
Pain medications: Acetaminophen (Tylenol), available over the counter, and opioids (requires a doctor's prescription) are often used to relieve pain in children. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) generally are not recommended for babies who are younger than 6 months old, but may be recommended for older children. Aspirin should not be used in children under the age of 19 unless instructed by your doctor, as it can cause Reye’s syndrome if used during or after a viral or fever-causing illness. Opioids are narcotic pain medications that contain natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic opiates. Opioids are often used to treat acute pain, such as short-term pain after surgery.
Antidepressants: Antidepressants are drugs that can treat pain and/or emotional conditions by adjusting levels of neurotransmitters (natural chemicals) in the brain. These medications can increase the availability of the body's signals for well-being and relaxation, enabling pain control for people with chronic pain conditions that do not completely respond to usual treatments.
Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA): Children who are four to six years old may be able to use PCA with the help of a parent or nurse. Children who are seven years or older can independently use the PCA pump.
Epidural analgesia: Epidural analgesia is usually performed around major surgeries such as abdominal, lower extremity or spinal surgeries for postoperative pain control. Pain medication is injected into the epidural space of the spinal cord.
While these medication are the same as those given to adults for pain, the dosing is not the same for children. The dose of medicine will likely be smaller for children than for the average adult, because it is based on the patient's weight. It is very important to follow the exact dosing prescribed by your child's doctor.