The spinal cord is the major bundle of nerves carrying nerve impulses to and from the brain to the rest of the body. Rings of bone, called vertebrae, surround the spinal cord. These bones constitute the spinal column or back bones.
Spinal cord injury can be direct trauma to the spinal cord itself or indirect damage to the bones, soft tissues, and blood vessels surrounding the spinal cord.
Hearing your doctor utter the words, "We’re going to have to operate," can
send a shiver down your spine. Immediately, questions about the seriousness of
your condition, the procedure itself, and the likelihood that it will cure what
ails you flood the mind. Then, there is the prospect of post-surgery pain. How
badly is this going to hurt?
The bad news is that some pain is an inevitable companion to most types of
surgery. The good news is that there are many highly effective medications to
Spinal cord damage results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. In most people who have spinal cord injury, the spinal cord is intact. Spinal cord injury is not the same as back injury, which may result from pinched nerves or ruptured disks. Even when a person sustains a break in a vertebra or vertebrae, there may not be any spinal cord injury if the spinal cord itself is not affected.
Causes of Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord injuries may result from falls, diseases like polio or spina bifida (a disorder involving incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord, and/or their protective coverings), motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, industrial accidents, and assaults, among other causes. If the spine is weak because of another condition, such as arthritis, minor injuries can cause spinal cord trauma.
Types of Spinal Cord Injury
There are two kinds of spinal cord injury -- complete and incomplete. In a complete injury, a person loses all ability to feel and voluntarily move below the level of the injury. In an incomplete injury, there is some functioning below the level of the injury.