Young woman with bowling sprain
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Is It a Sprain or Strain?

It’s all about what gets hurt. If you injure a muscle or tendon (which attaches muscle to bone), it’s a strain. Sprains affect ligaments, which connect the end of one bone to another. For both injuries, the answer is often RICE: rest, ice, compression, and elevation.

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Woman resting after minor injury
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Rest

Depending on where your injury is, you may need to keep weight off it for a day or two. Crutches, canes, and walking boots can help in some situations. If your sprain or strain is severe, you might need physical therapy. Your doctor can check your injury and advise the best treatment plan. In any case, ease back into activity slowly.

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Man applying ice to injury
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Ice

To curb swelling and pain in the first 24 hours after a minor injury, apply a cold compress for 20-30 minutes. Then remove it for 20-30 minutes. You can use a bag of frozen peas. Or put ice cubes in a plastic bag wrapped in a towel to avoid frostbite. A menthol gel or spray may also provide cool pain relief. Don't apply heat in the first 24 hours of your injury. It may worsen swelling. Later, you can try it to relax tight, sore muscles.

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Nurse applying compression to sprain
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Compression

This technique can help keep swelling down. For the first day or two after an injury, wrap a sprain or strain in compression bandages. Your doctor can give you advice on what to use and how to apply it.

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Injured foot being elevated
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Elevation

This means raising your injured area. It helps to bring down swelling, Try to keep the injured area higher than your heart, if possible. If your injury was mild, give RICE a week. If you still have pain with noticeable swelling after that, call your doctor. (Of course, if it’s a severe injury, see your doctor right away.)

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Woman resting leg after injury
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What Else Helps

Sometimes, you need a splint, cast, or walking boot to keep your injured area still so it can heal properly. Your doctor can let you know if you need that. To recover from a sprain or strain, you may need to do exercises at home or work with a physical therapist. For a  severe injury, you may need surgery.

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Bruised skin
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How to Soothe Bruises

If you fall, bump into something, or get hit, you may get a bruise. It happens if small blood vessels below your skin break. To help bruises heal, use a cold compress right after the injury, then raise the injured area above your heart, if you can. Bruises usually last about 2 weeks. As they heal, they change color from red/purplish to yellowish. If a bruise is severe or swells painfully, see a doctor.

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Young boy caring for black eye
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If You Get a Black Eye

Don’t use a steak! Instead, apply a cold compress or towel-wrapped ice pack for 20 minutes every hour while you’re awake. Make sure to see your doctor to check on wehther the injury is serious.  

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Young girl with bump on head
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Bump on the Head?

The best way to cut the swelling and pain of most minor head bumps is with a cold compress or ice pack. Get medical help immediately for a bump if there's any bleeding from the head or face, severe headache or vomiting, unconsciousness, slurred speech, vision problems or pupils of uneven size, breathing issues, confusion, or convulsions.

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Pain medication
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Medication for Pain Relief

Chances are good that your doctor will recommend RICE for your minor bump, bruise, sprain, or strain. But if you have lingering pain, talk to your doctor about over-the-counter or prescription relief that may include pills, patches, or assistive devices.

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Woman using crutches
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Crutches, Braces, and Boots

If you can't put weight on a sprained or strained knee or ankle, your doctor may suggest a cane, crutch, brace, or walking boot to help as you heal. If you need a brace or assistive walking device, get your doctor's advice on how to use it.

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Sources | Medically Reviewed on 03/26/2017 Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on March 26, 2017

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REFERENCES:

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

American Medical Association, Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care, Revised Edition, Random House, 2000.

Duke University Health System.

International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, ”A Comparison of Topical Menthol to Ice on Pain, Evoked Tetanic and Voluntary Force During Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness.”

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases.

The Nemours Foundation.

Reviewed by Laura J. Martin, MD on March 26, 2017

This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.

THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.

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