That news comes from researchers in Finland, including Petteri Hovi, MD, of Finland's National Public Health Institute.
They studied 332 young adults who were 18-27 years old.
The group included 163 people who had been born prematurely at very low birth weight (ranging from 1.3-3.3 pounds). The remaining 169 participants had been born from full-term pregnancies.
The researchers tested participants' blood samples and found that while none of the participants had diabetes, blood sugar problems and high systolic blood pressure were more common in the preterm group.
Systolic blood pressure is the first, or top, number in a blood pressure reading, normally less than 120.
The study doesn't pinpoint the causes of participants' blood sugar problems or high blood pressure.
The differences between the preterm and full-term groups didn't appear to be due to weight or body fat levels, note the researchers.
The findings were statistically significant, meaning it wasn't likely due to chance. But the gap between the two groups wasn't large.
Preterm babies face many challenges as a result of not being able to complete a healthy pregnancy. Those challenges may have long-term health consequences, note the researchers.
The study appears in The New England Journal of Medicine, along with an editorial by the journal's deputy editor, Julie Ingelfinger, MD.
It's not clear exactly how preterm birth affects adult health, but it's an important topic, notes Ingelfinger.
"Now that many more extremely premature babies are surviving to adulthood, ensuring their health is crucial," writes Ingelfinger.