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Health & Parenting

Medical Reference Related to Health & Parenting

  1. Mastitis While Breast-Feeding - Topic Overview

    Mastitis is a breast inflammation usually caused by infection.

  2. Infant Formulas - Topic Overview

    What are infant formulas and what's in them?Infant formula is a nutritional product that is made from processed cow's milk or soybean products. Special processing makes cow's-milk formula more digestible and less likely to cause an allergic reaction than regular cow's milk.Vitamins and minerals are added to infant formula. Formula can be used to provide all of a baby's nutritional needs before the age of 4 to 6 months.Commercial formulas are made to be as similar to breast milk as possible. The safety and nutrient content of infant formula is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). About half the calories in formula come from vegetable oils or a mixture of vegetable and animal fats. A baby's body requires fat for the production and growth of new cells and for high energy needs. Milk sugar (lactose) is the main source of carbohydrate in most cow's-milk formula, just as in breast milk.What types of formulas are there?Several types of infant formulas are available.

  3. Feeding Schedule for Babies - Topic Overview

    Feed your baby whenever he or she seems hungry (on-demand).During the first few days or weeks, breast-feedings tend to occur every 1 to 3 hours around the clock. And formula-feedings tend to occur every 3 to 4 hours around the clock. You may have to wake your sleepy newborn to feed in the first few days after birth. A baby will usually wake up during the night for feedings for about the first 6 months. After that, babies may wait as long as 8 hours between feedings. Babies typically eat more just before and during a growth spurt.A baby is getting enough to eat if he or she: Wets at least 6 to 8 diapers a day. Gains 4 oz (0.1 kg) or more each week.Babies give cues during feeding that show how hungry they are. A hungry baby will latch on to the breast or bottle and suck continuously. A baby who is getting full during a feeding will take longer pauses between sucking. A full baby will turn away from the breast or bottle and not want to suck.Your baby may be eating too much if he or she

  4. Bottle-Feeding - Promoting Healthy Growth and Development

    Buying formula and suppliesTry to buy your formula and supplies before the baby is born. When you buy baby bottles and nipples, make sure you have a supply of small bottles [about ] for your baby's first few weeks. You may want to buy a variety of different bottle nipples so you can experiment to see which type your baby prefers. You can buy infant formula as a liquid concentrate or a powder that

  5. Breast-Feeding: How to Use a Breast Pump - Topic Overview

    Using a breast pump is a good way to provide the benefits of breast-feeding when you have to be away from your baby. Pumping will help keep up your milk supply and prevent discomfort and breast engorgement. You can also use a breast pump to slowly reduce your milk supply if you have to stop breast-feeding suddenly.There are different types of breast pumps to choose from. They may look confusing at first, but they are easy to use. If you have any problems with pumping, ask for help. A lactation consultant or other breast-feeding expert can help you learn how to use a breast pump. Getting ready to pumpRead all the instructions that came with your pump. Be sure you know how to put it together and how often you will need to clean and sanitize the parts.Choose a good place to pump. Find a spot that's clean, comfortable, and private so you can relax. If you're pumping at work, you may feel more at ease in a room that has a door you can lock.Using a breast pumpWash your hands before you

  6. Breast-Feeding: Weaning a Toddler - Topic Overview

    You may choose to wait until your child is a toddler (age 1 to 2 years) or older to wean him or her from the breast. You may feel that your toddler is not ready for weaning until later or that you both are not ready. You may want to initiate it or just let your child stop breast-feeding on his or her own (self-wean). One way to let a toddler control his or her own weaning is through the "don't ...

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect - Topic Overview

    What is child maltreatment?Child maltreatment is any intentional harm to a child. Child maltreatment includes neglect and abuse.Neglect is when parents or caregivers fail to ensure a child's health and well - being. Neglect may result from not providing a child with appropriate shelter, schooling, clothing, medical care, or protection from hazards. Child neglect is just as serious as abuse and is

  8. Healthy Habits for Kids - Topic Overview

    Habits are hard to break. That's why the sooner in life we build good,healthy habits,the easier it is to keep them and stay as healthy as possible. And when good habits are in place,it's easier to resist bad ones. Your child's habits start with you The most important thing to remember is that you are your child's role model. Your habits affect your children's habits. If your habits are ...

  9. Bottle-Feeding: Disadvantages for Babies - Topic Overview

    Infant formulas take two times longer for a baby to digest than breast milk. The slower digestion of infant formula can affect:Feeding frequency. Babies who take infant formula usually want to feed less often than babies who are breast-feeding.Sleeping patterns. Babies who take infant formula may sleep longer at night once they are about 2 months old. But babies who are breast-fed usually catch up shortly after, at about 3 to 5 months of age.Bowel movements. Infant formula causes formed, brown stools that have a noticeable odor. Breast milk causes loose, yellow stools that have less odor.Breast milk, unlike formula, has antibodies. Breast-feeding may lower your child's risk for many types of infections and allergies. Breast milk may also help protect your child from some health problems, such as eczema, asthma, and diabetes. For more information, see the topic Breast-Feeding.

  10. Helping Your Child Build Inner Strength - How Can You Help Teens Build Inner Strength?

    It often seems like teenagers never listen,but they do. That's why it's so important to remember that you are still the primary role model,even as your child grows older. The single most important thing you can do to help your teen is to show that you love him or her no matter what. Teenagers may be growing up,but they still need to: Feel safe and loved. Learn social skills. Learn to ...

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