Cough Syrup Abuse: Teens Are Drinking the Stuff to Get High
Researcher William R. Miller, PhD, distinguished professor of psychology and psychiatry, tells WebMD that the survey listed 16 common over-the-counter medications, nine of which contain DM, plus two fictitious drugs to help weed out false responses. In all, almost 400 fourth-12th graders were asked to circle any drug that they knew fellow students were using to "get high." The results of the survey are published in the September/October issue of the medical journal Archives of Family Medicine.
The students identified over-the-counter drugs containing DM significantly more often than those that didn't contain DM. Nyquil was the most frequently reported brand, with 46.6% of high school students, and 36.2% of the entire group, reporting that someone they knew had abused it. Interestingly, dextromethorphan itself was rarely selected. Other popular brands included Robitussin (although only 8 of its 12 varieties contain DM), Vicks 44D, and Tylenol Cough.
"We think this is an overlooked drug of abuse," says Miller, "and certainly one of great concern in terms of its toxicity." Although he's not advocating that the FDA make DM a controlled substance, Miller tells WebMD that he does "think this ought to be looked at."
"We don't comment on individual studies," FDA spokesperson Sharon Jayne tells WebMD. But, she adds, "there is always the possibility that this or any other OTC ingredient will come up for review, especially if [reports] of adverse reactions start coming into our database."
And, if the survey results are representative of schools across the county, that could very well be the case, the researchers say. Although there is no evidence to suggest that DM is addictive, there is plenty of evidence to suggest that it's dangerous. "There have been deaths associated with it," says Feeney. "Whether it directly caused the deaths, I don't know. [But,] if kids drove under the influence of DM, for example, that would be awful. I think there should be a warning on the bottle. Especially for epileptics, but also for potential abuse."
In addition to being on guard for the usual signs of trouble -- failing grades, mood swings, changes in a child's physical appearance -- parents should also be keeping an eye out for "mysteriously empty or disappearing cough syrup bottles," say the researchers. Only those syrups that are labeled cough suppressants, not expectorants, contain DM.