They were more predictive than how parents responded to sleep issues, but certain parental responses also seemed to negatively affect future sleep patterns, the study shows.
At the beginning of the study, researchers from Hopital du Sacre-Coeur de Montreal and the Universite de Montreal questioned 987 parents about the sleep behaviors of their then 5-month-old babies and their own rituals and behaviors directed toward getting the child to sleep.
Each year after this, until the children reached age 6, the parents were again asked about their children's sleep habits and their responses.
Early Sleep Problems Predictive
The researchers reported that the parents of children with sleep problems during infancy were more likely than other parents to adopt what they called "maladaptive" coping behaviors by the time their children had reached the ages of 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 years.
These behaviors included giving their child food or a drink upon awakening and putting the child in their own bed when he or she woke during the night.
Some of these behaviors, in turn, were found to predict future sleep problems, including bad dreams and total sleep time, but this effect did not remain statistically significant when the researchers controlled for early sleep problems.
The findings are reported in the April issue of the journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.
"Our findings are consistent with the notion that the child's sleep is differentially vulnerable to parental behaviors at different developmental periods," the researchers wrote.
"Parental strategies that were effective for early sleep difficulties (e.g. giving food or drink) may later become inappropriate to the child's age and needs."
Sleep Specialist Weighs In
Pediatric sleep specialist Judith Owens, MD, of Providence, Rhode Island's Brown Medical School in Providence, R.I., tells WebMD that it is no big surprise that infants with sleep problems are at greatest risk for sleep problems when they reach preschool age.