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Helping Your Child Avoid Tobacco, Drugs, and Alcohol - References


  1. American Cancer Society (2010). Child and teen tobacco use. Available online:

  2. DiFranza JR, et al. (2007). Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: The development and assessment of nicotine dependence in youth-2 study. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 161(7): 704–710.

  3. Wu L, et al. (2004). Inhalant abuse and dependence among adolescents in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(10): 1206–1214.

Other Works Consulted

  • Kaul P (2011). Adolescent substance abuse. In WW Hay et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 20th ed., pp. 145–158. New York: McGraw-Hill.


WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise

Last Updated: February 28, 2012
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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