Hormone Treatment Fights Prostate Cancer
What Types of Hormone Therapy Are There?
There are two basic kinds of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. One class
of drugs stops the body from making certain hormones. The other allows the body
to make these hormones, but prevents them from attaching to the cancer cells.
Some doctors start treatment with both drugs in an effort to achieve a total
androgen block. This approach goes by several names: combined androgen
blockade, complete androgen blockade, or total androgen blockade.
Here's a rundown of the techniques.
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH agonists.)
These are chemicals that stop the production of testosterone in the testicles.
Essentially, they provide the benefits of an orchiectomy for men with advanced
prostate cancer without surgery. This approach is sometimes called
"chemical castration." However, the effects are fully reversible if you
stop taking the medication.
Most LHRH agonists are injected every one to four months. Some examples are
Lupron, Trelstar, Vantas, and Zoladex. A new drug, Viadur, is an implant placed
in the arm just once a year.
Side effects can be significant. They include: loss of sex drive, hot flashes,
development of breasts (gynecomastia) or painful breasts, loss of muscle,
weight gain, fatigue, and decrease in levels of "good"
Plenaxis is a drug that's similar to LHRH agonists. However, because it can
cause serious allergic reactions, it's not used that often.
- Anti-androgens. LHRH agonists and orchiectomies only affect the
androgens that are made in the testicles. Thus they have no effect on the 5% to
10% of a man's "male" hormones that are made in the adrenal glands.
Anti-androgens are designed to affect the hormones made in the adrenal glands.
They don't stop the hormones from being made, but they stop them from having an
effect on the cancer cells.
The advantage of anti-androgens is that they have fewer side effects than LHRH
agonists. Many men prefer them because they are less likely to diminish libido.
Side effects include tenderness of the breasts, diarrhea, and nausea. These
drugs are also taken as pills each day, which may be more convenient than
injections. Examples are Casodex, Eulexin, and Nilandron.
In some cases, starting treatment with an LHRH agonist can cause a "tumor
flare," a temporary acceleration of the cancer's growth due to an initial
increase in testosterone before the levels drop. This may cause the prostate
gland to enlarge, obstructing the bladder and making it difficult to urinate.
It's believed that starting with an anti-androgen drug and then switching to an
LHRH agonist can help avoid this problem. In patients with bone metastases,
this "flare" can lead to significant complications such as bone pain,
fractures, and nerve compression.
Strangely, if treatment with an anti-androgen doesn't work, stopping it may
actually improve symptoms for a short time. This phenomenon is called
"androgen withdrawal," and experts aren't sure why it happens.
- Combined Androgen Blockade. This approach combines anti-androgens
with LHRH agonists or an orchiectomy. By using both approaches, you can cut off
or block the effects of hormones made by both the adrenal glands and the
testicles. However, using both treatments can also increase the side effects.
An orchiectomy or an LHRH agonist on its own can cause significant side effects
like a loss of libido, impotence, and hot flashes. Adding an anti-androgen can
cause diarrhea, and less often, nausea, fatigue, and liver problems.
- Estrogens. Some synthetic versions of female hormones are used for
prostate cancer. In fact, they were one of the early treatments used for the
disease. However, because of their serious cardiovascular side effects, they're
not used as often anymore. J. Brantley Thrasher, MD, a spokesman for the
American Urological Association and chairman of urology at the University of
Kansas Medical Center, says they're usually used only after initial hormone
treatments have failed. Examples of estrogens are DES (diethylstilbestrol),
Premarin, and Estradiol.
- Other Drugs. Proscar (finasteride) is another drug that indirectly
blocks an androgen that helps prostate cancer cells grow. Depending on the
case, doctors sometimes use other anticancer drugs like Nizoral (ketoconazole)
and Cytadren (aminoglutethimide.)
- Orchiectomy. The surgical removal of the testicles was the earliest
form of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. However, the procedure is
permanent. As with LHRH agonists, side effects can be significant. They
include: Loss of sex drive, hot flashes, development of breasts (gynecomastia)
or painful breasts, loss of muscle, weight gain, fatigue, and decrease in
levels of "good" cholesterol.
"Since we have other options, orchiectomies really aren't done very much
anymore," says Holden.
However, it can be the right choice in certain cases. "Some men might
get the procedure because they're tired of getting shots and aren't sexually
active anyway," says Thrasher. "Or they may have financial concerns. In
the long-run, an orchiectomy is much cheaper than LHRH agonists."
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can cause bone thinning osteoporosis,
which can lead to broken bones. However, treatment with bisphosphonates -- like
Aredia, Fosamax, and Zometa -- may help prevent this condition from developing,