Prostate Biopsy and the Gleason Score: What You Should Know
Understanding the Gleason Score
The Gleason score is only one piece of information that you and your doctor will use. Biopsy reports also typically include the number of biopsy core samples that contain cancer, the percentage of cancer in each of the cores, and whether the cancer occurs on one side or both sides of the prostate. The farther the cancer has spread, the more risk it poses. Researchers have developed a number of different tools that help doctors come up with the best prediction of the aggressiveness of the cancer they found.
"Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases,” says Howard I. Scher, MD, chief of genitourinary oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. “The type of tumor, the Gleason grade, and the extent of the disease varies widely among patients.” Along with biopsy results, your doctor will weigh the results from your PSA test, a digital rectal exam, and perhaps images from ultrasound or CAT scans.
To make sense of so many variables, doctors use a staging system, based on how much cancer is present and how far it has spread. Stage I, also called T1, describes when tumor cells are found in less than 5% of prostate tissue and the cells are low-grade. Stage II (T2) describes more extensive or more aggressive cells that are confined to the prostate. In stage III, or T3, the tumor has grown through the capsule that contains the prostate. In Stage IV (T4), the cancer has spread beyond the prostate to other organs.
Whatever treatment approach you ultimately choose -- whether surgery, radiation, or watchful waiting -- your doctor will recommend follow-up tests, including repeated PSA tests and biopsies. These are used to detect signs that the cancer has returned or progressed. The longer you go with no sign of a change, the less frequently you will need follow-up tests.