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    Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

    1. Prostate Cancer - Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

      Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of prostate screening include the following:Finding prostate cancer may not improve health or help a man live longer.Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have cancer that has already spread to the area outside of the prostate or to other places in your body. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. Finding these cancers is called overdiagnosis. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer, such as surgery and radiation therapy, may have serious

    2. Prostate Cancer - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    3. Prostate Cancer - About This PDQ Summary

      Purpose of This SummaryThis PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about prostate cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.Reviewers and UpdatesThis summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:be discussed at a meeting,be cited with text, orreplace or update an existing article that is already cited.Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in

    4. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions to Ask Your Health Care Provider About CAM

      When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions: What side effects can be expected?What are the risks associated with this therapy?Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?What benefits can be expected from this therapy?Will the therapy interfere with conventional treatment?Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?If so, who is sponsoring the trial?Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?

    5. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Prostate Cancer

      Local treatment modalities are associated with prolonged disease-free survival for many patients with localized prostate cancer but are rarely curative in patients with locally extensive tumors. Because of clinical understaging using current diagnostic techniques, even when the cancer appears clinically localized to the prostate gland, some patients develop disseminated tumors after local therapy with surgery or radiation. Metastatic prostate cancer is currently not curable.Treatment options for each stage of prostate cancer are presented in Table 9.Table 9. Treatment Options by Stage for Prostate CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Standard Treatment OptionsTURP = transurethral resection of the prostate.Stage I Prostate CancerWatchful waiting or active surveillanceRadical prostatectomyExternal-beam radiation therapy (EBRT)Interstitial implantation of radioisotopesStage II Prostate CancerWatchful waiting or active

    6. Prostate Cancer - nci_ncicdr0000062910-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Treatment

    7. Prostate Cancer - nci_ncicdr0000062833-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Prevention

    8. Prostate Cancer - Stages of Prostate Cancer

      After prostate cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnose prostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.) In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process:Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels

    9. Prostate Cancer - General Information About Prostate Cancer

      Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The prostate is just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of the semen. Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs. As men age, the prostate may get bigger. A bigger prostate may block the flow of urine from the bladder and cause problems with sexual function. This condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is not cancer, but surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of BPH or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer. Normal prostate and benign prostatic

    10. Prostate Cancer - nci_ncicdr0000062755-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Screening

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