PDQ IS A COMPREHENSIVE CANCER DATABASE AVAILABLE ON NCI'S WEB SITE. PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health,the federal government's focal point for biomedical research. .
Stage II Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewStage II prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:Stage IIAT1a–c, N0, M0, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T1a–c, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA X, Gleason X.Stage IIBT2c, N0, M0, any PSA, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, PSA ≥20 ng/ml, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, any PSA, Gleason ≥8.Radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes are each employed in the treatment of stage II prostate cancer with apparently similar therapeutic effects. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy yield apparently similar survival rates with as many as 10 years of follow-up. For well-selected patients, radical prostatectomy
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This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about prostate cancer.
Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk
While genetic testing for prostate cancer is not yet standard clinical practice, research from selected cohorts has reported that prostate cancer risk is elevated in men with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and on a smaller scale, in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Since clinical genetic testing is available for these genes, information about risk of prostate cancer based on alterations in these genes is included in this section. In addition, mutations in HOXB13 were reported to account for a proportion of hereditary prostate cancer. Although clinical testing is not yet available for HOXB13 alterations, it is expected that this gene will have clinical relevance in the future and therefore is also included in this section. The genetic alterations described in this section require further study and are not to be used in routine clinical practice at
Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Recurrent prostate cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the prostate or in other parts of the body. ...
Incidence and Mortality Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in North American men,excluding skin cancers. It is estimated that in 2006,approximately 234,460 new cases and 27,350 prostate cancer-related deaths will occur in the United States.[ 1 ] Prostate cancer is now the third leading cause of cancer death in men,exceeded only by lung cancer and colorectal cancer. It ...
Prostate Cancer Prevention
The prostate is a gland in males that is involved in the production of semen. It is located between the bladder and the rectum. The normal prostate gland is the size of a walnut and surrounds the urethra,the tube that carries urine from the bladder. Significance of prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer among men in the United States. Although the number of men ...
Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.SignificanceUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Stage III Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewStage III prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:T3a–b, N0, M0, any prostate-specific antigen (PSA), any Gleason.Extraprostatic extension with microscopic bladder neck invasion (T4) is included with T3a.External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), interstitial implantation of radioisotopes, and radical prostatectomy are used to treat stage III prostate cancer. Prognosis is greatly affected by whether regional lymph nodes are evaluated and proven not to be involved. EBRT using a linear accelerator is the most common treatment for patients with stage III prostate cancer, and large series support its success in achieving local disease control and disease-free survival (DFS).[3,4] The results of radical prostatectomy in stage III patients are greatly inferior compared with results in patients with stage II cancer. Interstitial implantation of radioisotopes is
General Information About Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the