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    Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

    1. Prostate Cancer - Vitamin D

      The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

    2. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM

      National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: info@nccam.nih.gov Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from

    3. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Prostate Cancer Prevention

      Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors may increase the risk of prostate cancer:Age Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than-average risk of prostate cancer.Race Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate

    4. Prostate Cancer - What is screening?

      Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms. This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early,it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear,cancer may have begun to spread. Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain types of cancer. They also study the things we do and the ...

    5. Prostate Cancer - General Information About Prostate Cancer

      Prostate cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the prostate.The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system located just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland produces fluid that makes up part of semen. Anatomy of the male reproductive and urinary systems, showing the prostate, testicles, bladder, and other organs.As men age, the prostate may get bigger. A bigger prostate may block the flow of urine from the bladder and cause problems with sexual function. This condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed to correct it. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be similar to symptoms of prostate cancer. Normal

    6. Prostate Cancer, Advanced or Metastatic - Questions or Comments About This Summary

      If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

    7. Prostate Cancer - Treatment Options by Stage

      A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Stage I Prostate CancerStandard treatment of stage I prostate cancer may include the following:Watchful waiting.Active surveillance. If the cancer begins to grow, hormone therapy may be given.Radical prostatectomy, usually with pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radiation therapy may be given after surgery.External-beam radiation therapy. Hormone therapy may be given after radiation therapy.Internal radiation therapy with radioactive seeds.A clinical trial of high-intensity focused ultrasound.A clinical trial of cryosurgery.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the

    8. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Lycopene

      OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Lycopene is a carotenoid, a natural pigment made by plants and various fruits and vegetables, including tomatoes, apricot, guava, and watermelon.Lycopene's absorption is improved with concurrent dietary fat intake.Lycopene inhibits androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells in vitro and, along with some of its metabolites, reduces prostate cancer cell proliferation and may modulate cell-cycle progression.Lycopene may also affect the insulin-like growth factor intracellular pathway in prostate cancer cells.Results from several in vitro and animal studies have indicated that lycopene may have chemopreventive effects for cancers of the prostate, skin, breast, lung, and liver; however, human trials have been inconsistent in their findings. Clinical trials utilizing lycopene in prostate cancer patients with various different clinical presentations (e.g., early stage, prostate-specific

    9. Prostate Cancer - Stage Information for Prostate Cancer

      Staging TestsMost men are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early clinical stage and do not have detectable metastases. Therefore, they generally do not have to undergo staging tests, such as a bone scan, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, staging studies are done if there is clinical suspicion of metastasis, such as bone pain; local tumor spread beyond the prostate capsule; or a substantial risk of metastasis (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/ml and Gleason score >7).[1]Tests used to determine stage include the following:Radionuclide bone scans.Serum PSA level.MRI.Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).Transrectal or transperineal biopsy.Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).CT scans.Radionuclide bone scansA radionuclide bone scan is the most widely used test for metastasis to the bone, which is the most common site of distant

    10. Prostate Cancer - nci_ncicdr0000062965-nci-header

      This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer Treatment

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