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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Get More Information From NCI

    This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about prostate cancer.

  2. Stage Information for Prostate Cancer

    Staging TestsMost men are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early clinical stage and do not have detectable metastases. Therefore, they generally do not have to undergo staging tests, such as a bone scan, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, staging studies are done if there is clinical suspicion of metastasis, such as bone pain; local tumor spread beyond the prostate capsule; or a substantial risk of metastasis (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/ml and Gleason score >7).[1]Tests used to determine stage include the following:Radionuclide bone scans.Serum PSA level.MRI.Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).Transrectal or transperineal biopsy.Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).CT scans.Radionuclide bone scansA radionuclide bone scan is the most widely used test for metastasis to the bone, which is the most common site of distant

  3. Questions and Answers About Modified Citrus Pectin

    What is modified citrus pectin?Pectin is a type of polysaccharide (a carbohydrate with many small sugar molecules that are chemically linked). Pectin is found in the cell walls of most plants and has gel-like qualities that are useful in making many types of food and medicine.Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. Citrus pectin can be modified with high pH and heat to break its molecules into smaller pieces. Modified citrus pectin (also called MCP) can be digested and absorbed by the body. How is MCP administered or consumed? MCP may be taken by mouth in powder or capsule form. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been conducted using MCP? A study in prostate cancer cells compared 3 different kinds of pectin: citrus pectin, PectaSol (a dietary supplement with MCP), and fractionated pectin powder. Prostate cancer cells treated with the pectin powder had more damage than those treated with citrus pectin

  4. Changes to This Summary (03 / 20 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.

  5. Changes to This Summary (11 / 02 / 2012)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Changes were made to this summary to match those made to the health professional version.

  6. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    After prostate cancer has been diagnosed,tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order .

  7. Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary,please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site’s Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English. ...

  8. Get More Information From NCI

    Get more information on prostate cancer treatment. How to contact the National Cancer Institute (NCI) via phone (1-800-4-Cancer), online, or mail. Plus, details on how to search the NCI web site, and how to order NCI publications.

  9. Evidence of Benefit

    Prior to the 1990s,the digital rectal examination (DRE) was the test traditionally mentioned for prostate cancer screening. Two other test procedures are also available: transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations.[ 1 ] Prostate cancer screening is controversial because of the lack of definitive evidence of benefit. A small randomized trial in .

  10. Soy

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Soy foods (e.g., soy milk, miso, tofu, and soy flour) contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits and, among these, soy isoflavones have been the focus of most of the research.Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens. The major isoflavones in soybeans are genistein (the most abundant), daidzein, and glycitein.Genistein affects components of multiple growth and proliferation -related pathways in prostate cancer cells, including the COX-2 /prostaglandin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways.Some preclinical studies have indicated that the combined effect of multiple isoflavones may be greater than that of a single isoflavone.Some animal studies have demonstrated prostate cancer prevention effects with soy and genistein; however, other animal studies have yielded conflicting results regarding beneficial effects of genistein on prostate cancer metastasis.Epidemiologic studies have

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