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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Interventions in Familial Prostate Cancer

    Refer to the PDQ summaries on Screening for Prostate Cancer; Prevention of Prostate Cancer; and Prostate Cancer Treatment for more information on interventions for sporadic nonfamilial forms of prostate cancer.As with any disease process, decisions about risk-reducing interventions for patients with an inherited predisposition to prostate cancer are best guided by randomized controlled clinical trials and knowledge of the underlying natural history of the process. Unfortunately, little is known about either the natural history or the inherent biologic aggressiveness of familial prostate cancer compared with sporadic forms. Existing studies of the natural history of prostate cancer in men with a positive family history are predominantly based on retrospective case series. Because awareness of a positive family history can lead to more frequent work-ups for cancer and result in apparently earlier prostate cancer detection, assessments of

  2. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Psychosocial Issues in Prostate Cancer

    IntroductionResearch to date has included survey, focus group, and correlation studies on psychosocial issues related to prostate cancer risk. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling for more information about psychological issues related to genetic counseling for cancer risk assessment.) When it becomes available, genetic testing for mutations in prostate cancer susceptibility genes has the potential to identify those at highest risk, which facilitates risk-reducing interventions and early detection of prostate cancer. Having an understanding of the motivations of men who may consider genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer will help clinicians and researchers anticipate interest in testing. Further, these data will inform the nature and content of counseling strategies for men and their families, including consideration of the risks, benefits,

  3. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000719565-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements

  4. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Soy

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Soy foods (e.g., soy milk, miso, tofu, and soy flour) contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits and, among these, soy isoflavones have been the focus of most of the research.Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens. The major isoflavones in soybeans are genistein (the most abundant), daidzein, and glycitein.Genistein affects components of multiple growth and proliferation -related pathways in prostate cancer cells, including the COX-2 /prostaglandin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways.Some preclinical studies have indicated that the combined effect of multiple isoflavones may be greater than that of a single isoflavone.Some animal studies have demonstrated prostate cancer prevention effects with soy and genistein; however, other animal studies have yielded conflicting results regarding beneficial effects of genistein on prostate cancer metastasis.Epidemiologic studies

  5. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  6. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to Cancer.gov through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Evidence of Benefit

    Before the 1990s, the digital rectal examination (DRE) was the test traditionally used for prostate cancer screening. Two other procedures are also available: transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations.[1] Prostate cancer screening is controversial because of the lack of definitive evidence of benefit. A small randomized trial in Sweden evaluated the effects of screening men aged 50 to 69 years every 3 years; the first two screenings included DRE only, followed by two screenings with DRE combined with a test for PSA. The trial was not powered to detect even moderate differences in prostate cancer mortality, which was the same in the two groups: 1.3% (20 of 1,494 patients) for men assigned to screening and 1.3% (97 of 7,532 patients) for controls.[2] The controversy persists. A nested case-control study was conducted at ten U.S. Department of Veterans

  9. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Overview of CAM Use in Prostate Cancer

    Studies of CAM use to treat prostate cancer have shown the following:Men who have prostate cancer are more likely to take dietary supplements than men who do not have prostate cancer.Prostate cancer patients with the healthiest eating habits (for example, eating lots of fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vegetables) are the most likely to take dietary supplements.Popular dietary supplements used by prostate cancer patients include lycopene, vitamin E, selenium, and saw palmetto.Reasons given by prostate cancer patients for using CAM treatments include boosting the immune system, improving quality of life, and lowering the risk of the cancer coming back.Studies of CAM use to lower the risk of developing prostate cancer or to prevent it from coming back have shown the following:A study of men with a family history of prostate cancer found that over half used vitamins or other dietary supplements, including those sold for prostate health or cancer prevention such as selenium, green

  10. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Prostate Cancer

    Staging TestsMost men are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early clinical stage and do not have detectable metastases. Therefore, they generally do not have to undergo staging tests, such as a bone scan, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, staging studies are done if there is clinical suspicion of metastasis, such as bone pain; local tumor spread beyond the prostate capsule; or a substantial risk of metastasis (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/ml and Gleason score >7).[1]Tests used to determine stage include the following:Radionuclide bone scans.Serum PSA level.MRI.Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).Transrectal or transperineal biopsy.Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).CT scans.Radionuclide bone scansA radionuclide bone scan is the most widely used test for metastasis to the bone, which is the most common site of distant

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