Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk
While genetic testing for prostate cancer is not yet standard clinical practice, research from selected cohorts has reported that prostate cancer risk is elevated in men with mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and on a smaller scale, in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Since clinical genetic testing is available for these genes, information about risk of prostate cancer based on alterations in these genes is included in this section. In addition, mutations in HOXB13 were reported to account for a proportion of hereditary prostate cancer. Although clinical testing is not yet available for HOXB13 alterations, it is expected that this gene will have clinical relevance in the future and therefore it is also included in this section. The genetic alterations described in this section require further study and are not to be used
Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Patient Information [NCI] - Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening
Screening tests have risks.Decisions about screening tests can be difficult. Not all screening tests are helpful and most have risks. Before having any screening test, you may want to discuss the test with your doctor. It is important to know the risks of the test and whether it has been proven to reduce the risk of dying from cancer.The risks of prostate screening include the following:Finding prostate cancer may not improve health or help a man live longer.Screening may not improve your health or help you live longer if you have cancer that has already spread to the area outside of the prostate or to other places in your body. Some cancers never cause symptoms or become life-threatening, but if found by a screening test, the cancer may be treated. Finding these cancers is called overdiagnosis. It is not known if treatment of these cancers would help you live longer than if no treatment were given, and treatments for cancer, such as surgery and radiation therapy, may have serious
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Green Tea
OverviewThis section contains the following key information:All tea originates from the Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze plant, and the methods by which the leaves are processed determine the type of tea produced. For green tea, the leaves are steamed and dried.Some research suggests that green tea may have a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and against various forms of cancer, including prostate cancer.Catechins are polyphenol compounds in tea that are associated with many of tea's proposed health benefits.Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant catechin in tea, acts as an androgen antagonist and can suppress prostate cancer cell proliferation, suppress production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by prostate cancer cells, and increase prostate cancer cell death in vitro.Results from one in vitro study showed that prostate cancer cells were less susceptible to radiation -induced apoptosis when exposed to EGCG 30 minutes
Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Treatment Options for Recurrent Prostate Cancer
Standard treatment of recurrent prostate cancer may include the following:Chemotherapy.Biologic therapy with sipuleucel-T for patients already treated with hormone therapy.Hormone therapy.Radiation therapy.Prostatectomy for patients already treated with radiation therapy.Treatment to control pain from cancer that has spread to the bone may include the following:Pain medicine.External-beam radiation therapy.Internal radiation therapy with radioisotopes such as strontium-89.Targeted therapy with a monoclonal antibody.Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent prostate cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment
The purpose of this section is to describe current approaches to assessing and counseling patients about susceptibility to prostate cancer. Genetic counseling for men at increased risk of prostate cancer encompasses all of the elements of genetic counseling for other hereditary cancers. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling for more information.) The components of genetic counseling include concepts of prostate cancer risk, reinforcing the importance of detailed family history, pedigree analysis to derive age-related risk, and offering participation in research studies to those individuals who have multiple affected family members.[1,2]Genetic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility is not available outside of the context of a research study. Families with prostate cancer can be referred to ongoing research studies; however, these studies will not provide individual genetic results to participants.Prostate cancer will affect an estimated one
Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Prostate Cancer Treatment
OverviewStage IV prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:T4, N0, M0, any prostate-specific antigen (PSA), any Gleason.Any T, N1, M0, any PSA, any Gleason.Any T, any N, M1, any PSA, any Gleason.Extraprostatic extension with microscopic bladder neck invasion (T4) is included with T3a.Treatment selection depends on the following factors:Age.Coexisting medical illnesses.Symptoms.The presence of distant metastases (most often bone) or regional lymph node involvement only.The most common symptoms originate from the urinary tract or from bone metastases. Palliation of symptoms from the urinary tract with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or radiation therapy and palliation of symptoms from bone metastases with radiation therapy or hormonal therapy are an important part of the management of these patients. Bisphosphonates may also be used for the management of bone
Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary
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Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 06 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.
Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from
Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (08 / 22 / 2013)
The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. Editorial changes were made to this summary.