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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Opportunities for Prevention

    Hormonal PreventionThe Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a large randomized placebo-controlled trial of finasteride (an inhibitor of alpha-reductase), was performed in 18,882 men aged 55 years or older. At 7 years, the incidence of prostate cancer was 18.4% in the finasteride group versus 24.4% in the placebo group, a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 24.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.6%–30.6%; P < .001). The finasteride group had more patients with Gleason grade 7 to 10, but the clinical significance of Gleason scoring is uncertain in conditions of androgen deprivation.[1] High-grade cancers were noted in 6.4% of finasteride patients, compared with 5.1% of men receiving a placebo. The increase in high-grade tumors was seen within 1 year of finasteride exposure and did not increase during this time period.[2]Finasteride decreases the risk of prostate cancer but may also alter the detection of disease through effects on prostate-specific

  2. Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Screening - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Changes to This Summary (02 / 27 / 2014)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.Editorial changes were made to this summary.This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

  3. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Green Tea

    What is green tea?Tea has been consumed in Asia since ancient times. Sailors first brought tea to England in the 17th century. Other than water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea comes from the Camellia sinensis plant. The way the leaves of this plant are processed determines the type of tea produced. Many of the possible health benefits studied in green tea are thought to be from compounds called polyphenols. Polyphenols are a large group of plant chemicals that include catechins (antioxidants that help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals).Catechins make up most of the polyphenols in green tea. The most active catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).To make green tea, the tea leaves are roasted in a wok (or, historically, steamed) to preserve the catechins and retain freshness. Black tea is made using a process that causes the catechins and other compounds in the leaves to oxidize, producing darker colored tea. Oolong tea is

  4. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000299612-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Genetics of Prostate Cancer

  5. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions to Ask Your Health Care Provider About CAM

    When considering complementary and alternative therapies, patients should ask their health care provider the following questions: What side effects can be expected?What are the risks associated with this therapy?Do the known benefits outweigh the risks?What benefits can be expected from this therapy?Will the therapy interfere with conventional treatment?Is this therapy part of a clinical trial?If so, who is sponsoring the trial?Will the therapy be covered by health insurance?

  6. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Modified Citrus Pectin

    What is modified citrus pectin?Pectin is a type of polysaccharide (a carbohydrate with many small sugar molecules that are chemically linked). Pectin is found in the cell walls of most plants and has gel-like qualities that are useful in making many types of food and medicine.Citrus pectin is found in the peel and pulp of citrus fruits such as oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. Citrus pectin can be modified with high pH and heat to break its molecules into smaller pieces. Modified citrus pectin (also called MCP) can be digested and absorbed by the body. How is MCP administered or consumed? MCP may be taken by mouth in powder or capsule form. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been conducted using MCP? A study in prostate cancer cells compared 3 different kinds of pectin: citrus pectin, PectaSol (a dietary supplement with MCP), and fractionated pectin powder. Prostate cancer cells treated with the pectin powder had more damage than those treated with citrus pectin

  7. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  8. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Soy

    OverviewZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity, and the capacity to be combined with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.General Information and HistoryZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy

  9. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Questions or Comments About This Summary

    If you have questions or comments about this summary, please send them to through the Web site's Contact Form. We can respond only to email messages written in English.

  10. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - To Learn More About CAM

    National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) facilitates research and evaluation of complementary and alternative practices, and provides information about a variety of approaches to health professionals and the public.NCCAM ClearinghousePost Office Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898–7923Telephone: 1–888–644–6226 (toll free) 301–519–3153 (for International callers)TTY (for deaf and hard of hearing callers): 1–866–464–3615Fax: 1–866–464–3616E-mail: Web site: http://nccam.nih.govCAM on PubMedNCCAM and the NIH National Library of Medicine (NLM) jointly developed CAM on PubMed, a free and easy-to-use search tool for finding CAM-related journal citations. As a subset of the NLM's PubMed bibliographic database, CAM on PubMed features more than 230,000 references and abstracts for CAM-related articles from

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