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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Pomegranate

    What is pomegranate?The pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is native to Asia and grown throughout the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, East Indies, Africa, and the United States. Pomegranate has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Different parts of the pomegranate fruit have bioactive compounds (chemicals found in small amounts that have actions in the body that may promote good health). These include:the peel, which makes up half the fruit and contains bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, and ellagitannins (the main source of antioxidant activity);the seeds, which contain punicic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid; andthe aril (outer layer surrounding the seeds), which contains phenolics and flavonoids including anthocyanins, which give the pomegranate fruit and juice their red color. How is pomegranate administered or consumed? Pomegranate may be consumed in the diet or taken in dietary supplements. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been

  2. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Zyflamend

    OverviewZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy basil, green tea, hu zhang, Chinese goldthread, barberry, oregano, and Baikal skullcap.The individual components of Zyflamend have anti-inflammatory and possible anticarcinogenic properties.In various preclinical studies, Zyflamend has been shown to suppress the expression of certain genes involved in the inflammatory response and in cancer progression, such as cyclooxygenase 1(COX-1), COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), and 12-LOX.In other preclinical studies, Zyflamend has demonstrated single-agent anticancer activity, and the capacity to be combined with hormonal and chemotherapy agents for improved cancer suppression.Results of a phase I study of Zyflamend suggest that use of this supplement is not associated with serious toxicity or adverse effects.General Information and HistoryZyflamend is a dietary supplement that contains extracts of rosemary, turmeric, ginger, holy

  3. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Prostate Cancer

    Staging TestsMost men are diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early clinical stage and do not have detectable metastases. Therefore, they generally do not have to undergo staging tests, such as a bone scan, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, staging studies are done if there is clinical suspicion of metastasis, such as bone pain; local tumor spread beyond the prostate capsule; or a substantial risk of metastasis (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] >20 ng/ml and Gleason score >7).[1]Tests used to determine stage include the following:Radionuclide bone scans.Serum PSA level.MRI.Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND).Transrectal or transperineal biopsy.Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS).CT scans.Radionuclide bone scansA radionuclide bone scan is the most widely used test for metastasis to the bone, which is the most common site of distant

  4. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Soy

    OverviewThis section contains the following key information:Soy foods (e.g., soy milk, miso, tofu, and soy flour) contain phytochemicals that may have health benefits and, among these, soy isoflavones have been the focus of most of the research.Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens. The major isoflavones in soybeans are genistein (the most abundant), daidzein, and glycitein.Genistein affects components of multiple growth and proliferation -related pathways in prostate cancer cells, including the COX-2 /prostaglandin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways.Some preclinical studies have indicated that the combined effect of multiple isoflavones may be greater than that of a single isoflavone.Some animal studies have demonstrated prostate cancer prevention effects with soy and genistein; however, other animal studies have yielded conflicting results regarding beneficial effects of genistein on prostate cancer metastasis.Epidemiologic studies have

  5. Changes to This Summary (02 / 15 / 2013)

    The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.IntroductionUpdated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 1).Updated statistics with age-specific probabilities of being diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2013.Genes With Potential Clinical Relevance in Prostate Cancer Risk This section was comprehensively reviewed and extensively revised.Methods of Prostate Cancer Genetic ResearchAdded American Cancer Society as reference 4.Added 2q37 to the list of chromosomal regions with modest-to-strong statistical significance (logarithm of the odds score ≥2) identified by genome-wide linkage studies of families with prostate cancer (cited Cropp et al. as reference 87). Added text about a study of 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from multiple cohorts who were genotyped for

  6. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Introduction

    This complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information summary provides an overview of the use of various foods and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer. This summary includes the history of research on the following six different foods or dietary supplements, reviews of laboratory and animal studies, and results of clinical trials.Green tea.Lycopene.Modified citrus pectin.Pomegranate.Soy.Zyflamend.Each type of dietary supplement or food will have a dedicated section in the summary, and new topics will be added over time.Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer affecting men in the United States. From 2004 to 2008, the median age of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 67, and the incidence rate was 156 cases per 100,000 men per year.[1]Many studies suggest that CAM use is common among prostate cancer patients, and the use of vitamins, supplements, and specific foods is frequently reported by these

  7. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - nci_ncicdr0000719335-nci-header

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements

  8. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Sources of further information about Prostate Cancer Prevention.

  9. Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Patient Information [NCI] - Questions and Answers About Lycopene

    What is lycopene?Lycopene is a carotenoid (a natural pigment made by plants). Lycopene protects plants from stress and helps them use the energy of the sun to make nutrients. Lycopene is found in fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, apricots, guavas, and watermelons. The main source of lycopene in the American diet is tomato-based products. Lycopene is more bioavailable (easier for the body to use) in processed tomato products like tomato paste and tomato puree than in raw tomatoes. Eating carotenoids, including lycopene, along with dietary fat may help the body absorb them. For example, one study showed that more lycopene was absorbed from diced tomatoes cooked with olive oil than diced tomatoes cooked without olive oil.Lycopene in the diet may affect antioxidant activity and communication between cells. Laboratory and animal studies have shown that lycopene may help lower the risk of prostate, skin, breast, lung, and liver cancers. However, clinical trials of whether lycopene lowers

  10. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - About This PDQ Summary

    PURPOSE OF THIS SUMMARY This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive,peer-reviewed,evidence-based information about the treatment of prostate cancer. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions. REVIEWERS AND UPDATES ...

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