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Medical Reference Related to Prostate Cancer

  1. Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treatment

    OverviewIn recurrent prostate cancer, the selection of further treatment depends on many factors, including:Previous treatment.Site of recurrence.Coexistent illnesses.Individual patient considerations. Definitive radiation therapy can be given to patients with disease that fails only locally following prostatectomy.[1,2,3,4] An occasional patient can be salvaged with prostatectomy after a local recurrence following definitive radiation therapy;[5] however, only about 10% of patients treated initially with radiation therapy will have local relapse only. In these patients, prolonged disease control is often possible with hormonal therapy, with median cancer-specific survival of 6 years after local failure.[6]Cryosurgical ablation of recurrence following radiation therapy is associated frequently with a high complication rate. This technique is still undergoing clinical evaluation.[7]Hormonal therapy is used to manage most relapsing patients with

  2. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment

    The purpose of this section is to describe current approaches to assessing and counseling patients about susceptibility to prostate cancer. Genetic counseling for men at increased risk of prostate cancer encompasses all of the elements of genetic counseling for other hereditary cancers. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling for more information.) The components of genetic counseling include concepts of prostate cancer risk, reinforcing the importance of detailed family history, pedigree analysis to derive age-related risk, and offering participation in research studies to those individuals who have multiple affected family members.[1,2]Genetic testing for prostate cancer susceptibility is not available outside of the context of a research study. Families with prostate cancer can be referred to ongoing research studies; however, these studies will not provide individual genetic results to participants.Prostate cancer will affect an estimated one

  3. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Get More Information From NCI

    Call 1-800-4-CANCERFor more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m., Eastern Time. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.Chat online The NCI's LiveHelp® online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer. Write to usFor more information from the NCI, please write to this address:NCI Public Inquiries Office9609 Medical Center Dr. Room 2E532 MSC 9760Bethesda, MD 20892-9760Search the NCI Web siteThe NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support

  4. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Treatment Option Overview for Prostate Cancer

    Local treatment modalities are associated with prolonged disease-free survival for many patients with localized prostate cancer but are rarely curative in patients with locally extensive tumors. Because of clinical understaging using current diagnostic techniques, even when the cancer appears clinically localized to the prostate gland, some patients develop disseminated tumors after local therapy with surgery or radiation. Metastatic prostate cancer is currently not curable.Treatment options for each stage of prostate cancer are presented in Table 9.Table 9. Treatment Options by Stage for Prostate CancerStage (TNM Staging Criteria)Standard Treatment OptionsTURP = transurethral resection of the prostate.Stage I Prostate CancerWatchful waiting or active surveillanceRadical prostatectomyExternal-beam radiation therapy (EBRT)Interstitial implantation of radioisotopesStage II Prostate CancerWatchful waiting or active

  5. Stage II Prostate Cancer Treatment

    OverviewStage II prostate cancer is defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM classification system:[1]Stage IIAT1a–c, N0, M0, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T1a–c, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA ≥10 <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤6.T2a, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason 7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA <20 ng/ml, Gleason ≤7.T2b, N0, M0, PSA X, Gleason X.Stage IIBT2c, N0, M0, any PSA, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, PSA ≥20 ng/ml, any Gleason.T1–2, N0, M0, any PSA, Gleason ≥8.Radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), and interstitial implantation of radioisotopes are each employed in the treatment of stage II prostate cancer with apparently similar therapeutic effects. Radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy yield apparently similar survival rates with as many as 10 years of follow-up. For well-selected patients, radical prostatectomy

  6. Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Patient Information [NCI] - Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer.Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk of cancer.The following risk factors may increase the risk of prostate cancer:Age Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 50 years of age. The chance of developing prostate cancer increases as men get older.Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, or son has had prostate cancer has a higher-than-average risk of prostate cancer.Race Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate

  7. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Identifying Genes and Inherited Variants Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk

    Various research methods have been employed to uncover the landscape of genetic variation associated with prostate cancer. Specific methodologies inform of unique phenotypes or inheritance patterns. The sections below describe prostate cancer research utilizing various methods to highlight their role in uncovering the genetic basis of prostate cancer. In an effort to identify disease susceptibility genes, linkage studies are typically performed on high-risk extended families in which multiple cases of a particular disease have occurred. Typically, gene mutations identified through linkage analyses are rare in the population, highly penetrant in families, and have large effect sizes. The

  8. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Introduction

    Many of the medical and scientific terms used in this summary are found in the NCI Dictionary of Genetics Terms. When a linked term is clicked,the definition will appear in a separate window. The public health burden of prostate cancer is substantial. A total of 186,320 new cases of prostate cancer and 28,660 deaths from the disease are anticipated in the United States in 2008,making it the ...

  9. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Psychosocial Issues in Prostate Cancer

    IntroductionResearch to date has included survey, focus group, and correlation studies on psychosocial issues related to prostate cancer risk. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment and Counseling for more information about psychological issues related to genetic counseling for cancer risk assessment.) When it becomes available, genetic testing for mutations in prostate cancer susceptibility genes has the potential to identify those at highest risk, which facilitates risk-reducing interventions and early detection of prostate cancer. Having an understanding of the motivations of men who may consider genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer will help clinicians and researchers anticipate interest in testing. Further, these data will inform the nature and content of counseling strategies for men and their families, including consideration of the risks, benefits,

  10. Questions and Answers About Pomegranate

    What is pomegranate?The pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is native to Asia and grown throughout the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, East Indies, Africa, and the United States. Pomegranate has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. Different parts of the pomegranate fruit have bioactive compounds (chemicals found in small amounts that have actions in the body that may promote good health). These include:The peel, which makes up half the fruit and contains bioactive compounds such as phenolics, flavonoids, and ellagitannins (the main source of antioxidant activity);The seeds, which contain punicic acid, an omega-5 fatty acid; andThe aril (outer layer surrounding the seeds), which contains phenolics and flavonoids including anthocyanins, which give the pomegranate fruit and juice their red color. How is pomegranate administered or consumed? Pomegranate may be consumed in the diet or taken in dietary supplements. Have any preclinical (laboratory or animal) studies been

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